Drug Policy in India 2005: Compounding Harms. Charles M, Bewley-Taylor D and Neidpath A (2005)

Drug Policy in India 2005: Compounding Harms. Charles M, Bewley-Taylor D and Neidpath A (2005) Contemporary international drug policy seeks to control both the demand and supply of drugs through the criminalisation of production, trafficking and use. Furthermore, adherence to the United Nations drug control conventions ensures that most nation states adopt a similar prohibition-oriented approach when formulating national drug control legislation. Recent research suggests that this can be problematic in some Asian countries where longstanding cultural sanctions already existed for drug use; particularly those involving psychoactive plant products such as cannabis and opium.

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Drug Use and Harm Reduction in Afghanistan . Todd CS, Safi N and Strathdee, SA (2005)

Drug Use and Harm Reduction in Afghanistan . Todd CS, Safi N and Strathdee, SA (2005) Opium has been cultivated in Afghanistan since 1100 A.D., although production has steadily increased since 1979. Currently, Afghanistan produces three-quarters of the global opium supply, with injection drug use and HIV currently following the opium trade route through Central Asia. Although systematic studies are lacking, heroin use appears to be on the rise in Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to briefly provide historical background and current statistics for drug production and use in Afghanistan, to discuss the new government's policies towards problem drug use and available rehabilitation programs, and to assess Afghan harm reduction needs with consideration of regional trends.

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Effectiveness of Drug Dependence Treatment in Preventing HIV among IDUs. WHO (2005)

Effectiveness of Drug Dependence Treatment in Preventing HIV among IDUs. WHO (2005) The global environment for a response to HIV has shifted substantially towards a massive scaling up of prevention, treatment and care interventions. In particular, the world made an unprecedented commitment during the United Nations Special Session on HIV/AIDS in 2001 to halting and reversing the epidemic by 2015. In support of this, additional resources to fund an expanded response have been come available through the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

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Harm Reduction Strategy for IDU and HIV/AIDS Prevention in Afghanistan. Ministry of Public Health Afghanistan (2005)

Harm Reduction Strategy for IDU and HIV/AIDS Prevention in Afghanistan. Ministry of Public Health Afghanistan (2005) Afghanistan is an impoverished war-torn country surrounded by neighbouring countries with high levels of IDUs and escalating rates of drug-related HIV/AIDS infection. This is a matter of great national concern at a time when all indicators suggest increasing rates of drug addiction in several areas of Afghanistan, including the injection of heroin and a range of pharmaceutical medicines used as intoxicants, and only a few under-resourced services available for those with drug-related problems. For the many Afghan drug users who do not have access to treatment services it is essential that harm reduction measures be taken as part of a public health strategy to reduce the risk of HIV infection and other Blood Born Diseases (BBD).

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Integrated Bio-Behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Male Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Eastern Terai. New ERA, STD/AIDS Counseling and Training Service, FHI, et al. (2005)

Integrated Bio-Behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Male Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Eastern Terai. FHI and USAID (2005) HIV transmission among drug users is associated with injecting drug use that involves the sharing of needles or syringes. Risky sexual behavior associated with drug use also contributes to the spread of HIV. Injecting drug users function as a “bridging population” for HIV transmission between a core HIV risk group, other high-risk groups and the general population. The main objective of this study was “to estimate the prevalence rate of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) and assess their risky behavior". The study was conducted in among IDUs in the sub metropolitan city and municipalities, and the highway areas of Jhapa, Sunsari and Morang districts of the Eastern Terai. Three hundred and forty five IDUs were sampled using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) methodology. While structured questionnaires were used to collect behavioral data, clinical blood tests were used to determine the rate of HIV infection.


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Integrated Bio-Behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Male Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Pokhara. New ERA, STD/AIDS Counseling and Training Service, FHI, et al (2005)

Integrated Bio-Behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Male Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) In Pokhara. FHI and USAID (2005) HIV transmission among drug users is associated with injecting drug use that involves the sharing of needles or syringes. Risky sexual behavior associated with drug use also contributes to the spread of HIV. Injecting drug users function as a “bridging population” for HIV transmission between a core HIV risk group, other high-risk groups and the general population. The main objective of this study was “to estimate the prevalence rate of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) and assess their risky behavior". The study was conducted in the Pokhara Valley. Three hundred male IDUs were sampled using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) methodology. While structured questionnaires were used to collect behavioral data, clinical blood tests were used to determine the rate of HIV infection. The clinical test procedure used involved collecting blood from a subject’s pricked finger and then storing it in 2-4 capillary tubes until tests could be performed. In order to determine a participant's infection status, a rapid test kit algorithm was used in which two rapid tests (Capillus and Determine) were initially conducted with Uni-Gold reserved as a tie-breaker. In terms of socio-demographic characteristics, the study found that the median age of the IDUs was 23 years. This is almost similar to the findings of the first round of the survey. A majority of the IDUs had never been married. For the 34% of the IDUs who were ever married, the median age at marriage was 20 years. A majority of the IDUs had formal schooling. IDUs from different ethnic backgrounds participated in the study.

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Integrated Bio-Behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Male Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in the Kathmandu Valley. New ERA, STD/AIDS Counseling and Training Service, FHI, et al. (2005)

Integrated Bio-Behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Male Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in the Kathmandu Valley. FHI and USAID (2005) HIV transmission among drug users is associated with injecting drug use that involves the sharing of needles or syringes. Risky sexual behavior associated with drug use also contributes to the spread of HIV. Injecting drug users function as a “bridging population” for HIV transmission between a core HIV risk group, other high-risk groups and the general population. The main objective of this study was “to estimate the prevalence rate of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) and assess their risky behavior". The study was conducted in the Kathmandu Valley. Three hundred male IDUs were sampled using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) methodology. While structured questionnaires were used to collect behavioral data, clinical blood tests were used to determine the rate of HIV infection. The clinical test procedure used involved collecting blood from a subject’s pricked finger and then storing it in 2-4 capillary tubes until tests could be performed. In order to determine a participant's infection status, a rapid test kit algorithm was used in which two rapid tests (Capillus and Determine) were initially conducted with Uni-Gold reserved as a tie-breaker.

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Integrated Bio-Behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Male Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Western to Far Western Terai 2005. New ERA, STD/AIDS Counseling and Training Services, FHI, et al (2005)

Integrated Bio-Behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Male Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Western to Far Western Terai 2005. FHI and USAID (2005) HIV transmission among drug users is associated with injecting drug use that involves the sharing of needles or syringes. Risky sexual behavior associated with drug use also contributes to the spread of HIV. Injecting drug users function as a “bridging population” for HIV transmission between a core HIV risk group, other high-risk groups and the general population. The main objective of this study was “to estimate the prevalence rate of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) and assess their risky behavior". The study was conducted among IDUs in the municipalities and highway areas of Rupandehi, Banke, Kailali and Kanchanpur districts of the Western to Far Western Terai. Three hundred male IDUs were sampled using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) methodology. While structured questionnaires were used to collect behavioral data, clinical blood tests were used to determine the rate of HIV infection. The clinical test procedure used involved collecting blood from a subject’s pricked finger and then storing it in 2-4 capillary tubes until tests could be performed. In order to determine a participant's infection status, a rapid test kit algorithm was used in which two rapid tests (Capillus and Determine) were initially conducted with Uni-Gold reserved as a tie-breaker. In terms of socio- demographic characteristics, the study found that the median age of the IDUs was 25 years. About half of them were previously or currently married. The median age at marriage was 21 years. A majority of the IDUs had formal schooling. IDUs from different ethnic backgrounds participated in the study.

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Patterns of HIV Prevalence among Injecting Drug Users in the Cross-border Area of Lang Son Province, Vietnam, and Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China. Jarlais DCD, Johnston P, Friedmann P, et al (2005)

cover-coming-soon

To assess patterns of injecting drug use and HIV prevalence among injecting drug users
(IDUs) in an international border area along a major heroin trans-shipment route.


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Policy and Programming Guide for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care among Injecting Drug Users. WHO (2005)

Policy and Programming Guide for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care among Injecting Drug Users. WHO (2005) The epidemic of HIV infection and AIDS among injecting drug users (IDUs) and its spread from IDU populations to their sexual partners and the wider community is an important but often neglected aspect of the global AIDS pandemic. This neglect has resulted from:

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