Preventing HIV Infection among Injecting Drug Users in High Risk Countries: An Assessment of the Evidence. National Academy of Sciences (2006)

Preventing HIV Infection among Injecting Drug Users in High Risk Countries: An Assessment of the Evidence. National Academy of Sciences (2006) Drug dependence is a complex, chronic, relapsing condition that is often accompanied by se- vere health, psychological, economic, legal, and social consequences (IOM, 1990; 1995). It is manifested by a complex set of behaviors including compulsive drug craving, seeking, and use that interferes with an individual's physical, mental, and social functioning (IOM, 1997; McLellan et al., 2000). Similar to other chronic conditions, such as heart disease or diabetes, in- dividuals with drug dependence can stabilize their condition by making behavioral changes and with the use of appropriate medications (WHO et al., 2004).


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Summary Report Punjab - Integrated Biological & Behavioral Surveillance. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan, Punjab AIDS Control Program and Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (2006)

Summary Report Punjab - Integrated Biological & Behavioral Surveillance. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan, Punjab AIDS Control Program and Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (2006) The findings presented in this report are part of the round one surveillance activities carried out in 03 cities of Punjab by the National AIDS control Program / Punjab AIDS control Program    through    its    HIV/AIDS Surveillance    project    (HASP).    The purpose of present study was to map the vulnerable population like Injecting Drug Users (IDU), Female Sex Workers (FSW), Male Sex Workers (MSW) and Eunuch Sex Workers (ESW) in Punjab.

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Summary Report- Sind: Integrated Biological & Behavioral Surveillance 2006. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan, Sind AIDS Control Program and Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (2006)

Summary Report- Sind: Integrated Biological & Behavioral Surveillance 2006. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan, Sind AIDS Control Program and Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (2006) The findings presented here are part of the round one surveillance activities carried out in 08 cities of Pakistan by the National AIDS control Program (NACP) through its HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP). The primary goal of this research is to estimate and map the various HIV high risk groups in Pakistan, including injection drug users (IDUs) and commercial sex workers (CSWs); estimate prevalence of HIV infection and collect behavioral data for monitoring of the epidemic and its associated risk factors in the country.

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Vietnam: HIV/AIDS TRaC Study among Injecting Drug Users in Mong Cai, Uong Bi, and Thai Nguyen City. DFID and PSI (2006)

Vietnam: HIV/AIDS TRaC Study among Injecting Drug Users in Mong Cai, Uong Bi, and Thai Nguyen City. DFID and PSI (2006) Tracking surveys serve as tools to inform programming by routinely collecting data from cross-sections of populations at risk for HIV/AIDS and other adverse health outcomes. This survey among injecting drug users (IDUs) aimed to: 1) identify and describe segments of the population in terms of needle-sharing in the three months prior to the survey; 2) explore injecting practices, sexual behaviors and condom use of IDUs; 3) monitor trends in condom use, injecting behaviors, and use of VCT services by IDUs; 4) determine whether exposure to PSI program activities is associated with changes in key indicators; and 5) apply study findings to interventions designed for reducing the risk of HIV transmission among IDUs.

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Consensus Estimates of the Number of Problem Drug Users in Cambodia, 2004. National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs Cambodia (2005)

Consensus Estimates of the Number of Problem Drug Users in Cambodia, 2004. National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs Cambodia (2005) The objective of this study was to arrive at a consensus estimate of the number of problem drug users in Cambodia at the end of 2004. A reasonable estimate of the number of problem drug users in Cambodia is important for the planning of health care services, preventive and education campaigns, and law enforcement. Specific planning processes this will feed into include the current revision of the National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS; the national Drug Control Master Plan; and, the monitoring of the coverage of HIV prevention programmes.

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Drug Policy in India 2005: Compounding Harms. Charles M, Bewley-Taylor D and Neidpath A (2005)

Drug Policy in India 2005: Compounding Harms. Charles M, Bewley-Taylor D and Neidpath A (2005) Contemporary international drug policy seeks to control both the demand and supply of drugs through the criminalisation of production, trafficking and use. Furthermore, adherence to the United Nations drug control conventions ensures that most nation states adopt a similar prohibition-oriented approach when formulating national drug control legislation. Recent research suggests that this can be problematic in some Asian countries where longstanding cultural sanctions already existed for drug use; particularly those involving psychoactive plant products such as cannabis and opium.

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Drug Use and Harm Reduction in Afghanistan . Todd CS, Safi N and Strathdee, SA (2005)

Drug Use and Harm Reduction in Afghanistan . Todd CS, Safi N and Strathdee, SA (2005) Opium has been cultivated in Afghanistan since 1100 A.D., although production has steadily increased since 1979. Currently, Afghanistan produces three-quarters of the global opium supply, with injection drug use and HIV currently following the opium trade route through Central Asia. Although systematic studies are lacking, heroin use appears to be on the rise in Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to briefly provide historical background and current statistics for drug production and use in Afghanistan, to discuss the new government's policies towards problem drug use and available rehabilitation programs, and to assess Afghan harm reduction needs with consideration of regional trends.

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Effectiveness of Drug Dependence Treatment in Preventing HIV among IDUs. WHO (2005)

Effectiveness of Drug Dependence Treatment in Preventing HIV among IDUs. WHO (2005) The global environment for a response to HIV has shifted substantially towards a massive scaling up of prevention, treatment and care interventions. In particular, the world made an unprecedented commitment during the United Nations Special Session on HIV/AIDS in 2001 to halting and reversing the epidemic by 2015. In support of this, additional resources to fund an expanded response have been come available through the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

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Harm Reduction Strategy for IDU and HIV/AIDS Prevention in Afghanistan. Ministry of Public Health Afghanistan (2005)

Harm Reduction Strategy for IDU and HIV/AIDS Prevention in Afghanistan. Ministry of Public Health Afghanistan (2005) Afghanistan is an impoverished war-torn country surrounded by neighbouring countries with high levels of IDUs and escalating rates of drug-related HIV/AIDS infection. This is a matter of great national concern at a time when all indicators suggest increasing rates of drug addiction in several areas of Afghanistan, including the injection of heroin and a range of pharmaceutical medicines used as intoxicants, and only a few under-resourced services available for those with drug-related problems. For the many Afghan drug users who do not have access to treatment services it is essential that harm reduction measures be taken as part of a public health strategy to reduce the risk of HIV infection and other Blood Born Diseases (BBD).

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Integrated Bio-Behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Male Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Eastern Terai. New ERA, STD/AIDS Counseling and Training Service, FHI, et al. (2005)

Integrated Bio-Behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Male Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Eastern Terai. FHI and USAID (2005) HIV transmission among drug users is associated with injecting drug use that involves the sharing of needles or syringes. Risky sexual behavior associated with drug use also contributes to the spread of HIV. Injecting drug users function as a “bridging population” for HIV transmission between a core HIV risk group, other high-risk groups and the general population. The main objective of this study was “to estimate the prevalence rate of HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) and assess their risky behavior". The study was conducted in among IDUs in the sub metropolitan city and municipalities, and the highway areas of Jhapa, Sunsari and Morang districts of the Eastern Terai. Three hundred and forty five IDUs were sampled using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) methodology. While structured questionnaires were used to collect behavioral data, clinical blood tests were used to determine the rate of HIV infection.


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