HIV Prevention among Injecting Drug Users in Transitional and Developing Countries. UNAIDS (2006)

HIV Prevention among Injecting Drug Users in Transitional and Developing Countries. UNAIDS (2006) UNAIDS commissioned this report to investigate programmes and sites in developing and transitional countries which were regarded by international authorities as “high coverage sites” i.e. where more than 50% of injecting drug users had been reached by one or more HIV- prevention programmes. In all, seven sites were examined, including Soligorsk, Belarus; Pskov, Russian Federation; Sumy, Ukraine; Dhaka, Bangladesh; Rajshahi, Bangladesh; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong SAR), People’s Republic of China; and Salvador, Brazil.

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HIV/AIDS and Drug Use in Burma/Myanmar. Transnational Institute and Burma Centrum Nederland (2006)

HIV/AIDS and Drug Use in Burma/Myanmar. Transnational Institute and Burma Centrum Nederland (2006) The increasing number of injecting drug us- ers (IDUs) and the growing HIV/AIDS epi- demic in Burma presents one of the most serious health threats to the population in the country, and also to the region at large. Infection rates among IDUs in Burma are among the highest in the world.

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HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care for Female Injecting Drug Users. UNODC. (2006)

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Female injecting drug users differ from their male counterparts in terms of their background, their reasons for using drugs, and their psychosocial needs. However, most HIV/AIDS prevention and care programmes are not reaching this vulnerable group because services are designed for men. Attempts to reach and work with female injecting drug users are limited and, in fact, gender sensitive services addressing the specific needs of female injecting drug users hardly exist in most countries.


Keywords: HIV, women, drugs, services, harm reduction

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Injection Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of Current Situation, Prevention and Policy Implications. Qian HZ, Schumacher JE, Chen HT, et al (2006)

Injection Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of Current Situation, Prevention and Policy Implications. Qian HZ, Schumacher JE, Chen HT, et al (2006) Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and non-governmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

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Lao PDR – United Nations Regional Task Force on Injecting Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific Baseline Assessment Dec 2006. United Nations Regional Task Force on Injecting Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific (2006)

HIV Knowledge and Risk Behaviors among Pakistani and Afghani Drug Users in Quetta Pakistan. Zafar T, Brahmbhatt H, Imam G, et al (2003)

Lao PDR – United Nations Regional Task Force on Injecting Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific Baseline Assessment Dec 2006. United Nations Regional Task Force on Injecting Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific (2006)


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Preventing HIV Infection among Injecting Drug Users in High Risk Countries: An Assessment of the Evidence. National Academy of Sciences (2006)

Preventing HIV Infection among Injecting Drug Users in High Risk Countries: An Assessment of the Evidence. National Academy of Sciences (2006) Drug dependence is a complex, chronic, relapsing condition that is often accompanied by se- vere health, psychological, economic, legal, and social consequences (IOM, 1990; 1995). It is manifested by a complex set of behaviors including compulsive drug craving, seeking, and use that interferes with an individual's physical, mental, and social functioning (IOM, 1997; McLellan et al., 2000). Similar to other chronic conditions, such as heart disease or diabetes, in- dividuals with drug dependence can stabilize their condition by making behavioral changes and with the use of appropriate medications (WHO et al., 2004).


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Summary Report Punjab - Integrated Biological & Behavioral Surveillance. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan, Punjab AIDS Control Program and Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (2006)

Summary Report Punjab - Integrated Biological & Behavioral Surveillance. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan, Punjab AIDS Control Program and Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (2006) The findings presented in this report are part of the round one surveillance activities carried out in 03 cities of Punjab by the National AIDS control Program / Punjab AIDS control Program    through    its    HIV/AIDS Surveillance    project    (HASP).    The purpose of present study was to map the vulnerable population like Injecting Drug Users (IDU), Female Sex Workers (FSW), Male Sex Workers (MSW) and Eunuch Sex Workers (ESW) in Punjab.

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Summary Report- Sind: Integrated Biological & Behavioral Surveillance 2006. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan, Sind AIDS Control Program and Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (2006)

Summary Report- Sind: Integrated Biological & Behavioral Surveillance 2006. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan, Sind AIDS Control Program and Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (2006) The findings presented here are part of the round one surveillance activities carried out in 08 cities of Pakistan by the National AIDS control Program (NACP) through its HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP). The primary goal of this research is to estimate and map the various HIV high risk groups in Pakistan, including injection drug users (IDUs) and commercial sex workers (CSWs); estimate prevalence of HIV infection and collect behavioral data for monitoring of the epidemic and its associated risk factors in the country.

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Vietnam: HIV/AIDS TRaC Study among Injecting Drug Users in Mong Cai, Uong Bi, and Thai Nguyen City. DFID and PSI (2006)

Vietnam: HIV/AIDS TRaC Study among Injecting Drug Users in Mong Cai, Uong Bi, and Thai Nguyen City. DFID and PSI (2006) Tracking surveys serve as tools to inform programming by routinely collecting data from cross-sections of populations at risk for HIV/AIDS and other adverse health outcomes. This survey among injecting drug users (IDUs) aimed to: 1) identify and describe segments of the population in terms of needle-sharing in the three months prior to the survey; 2) explore injecting practices, sexual behaviors and condom use of IDUs; 3) monitor trends in condom use, injecting behaviors, and use of VCT services by IDUs; 4) determine whether exposure to PSI program activities is associated with changes in key indicators; and 5) apply study findings to interventions designed for reducing the risk of HIV transmission among IDUs.

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Consensus Estimates of the Number of Problem Drug Users in Cambodia, 2004. National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs Cambodia (2005)

Consensus Estimates of the Number of Problem Drug Users in Cambodia, 2004. National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs Cambodia (2005) The objective of this study was to arrive at a consensus estimate of the number of problem drug users in Cambodia at the end of 2004. A reasonable estimate of the number of problem drug users in Cambodia is important for the planning of health care services, preventive and education campaigns, and law enforcement. Specific planning processes this will feed into include the current revision of the National Strategic Plan on HIV/AIDS; the national Drug Control Master Plan; and, the monitoring of the coverage of HIV prevention programmes.

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