Policy Brief: Reduction of HIV Transmission through Drug-Dependence Treatment. WHO, UNAIDS and UNODC (2004)

Policy Brief: Reduction of HIV Transmission through Drug-Dependence Treatment. WHO, UNAIDS and UNODC (2004) Drug-dependence treatment aims at improving the health and quality of life of persons with drug dependence through achieving abstinence from drug consumption, reduction in morbidity and mortality caused by or related to high risk behaviors associated with drug consumption, and providing access to services and opportunities to achieve the highest possible level of physical, mental and social well-being.

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Policy Brief: Reduction of HIV Transmission through Outreach. WHO, UNAIDS and UNODC (2004)

Policy Brief: Reduction of HIV Transmission through Outreach. WHO, UNAIDS and UNODC (2004) In many countries, access to drug-dependence treatment and HIV/AIDS prevention and care services is limited for injecting drug users. Moreover, users of illicit drugs are commonly marginalized by communities and usually attempt to remain hidden from the authorities, especially law enforcement agencies. They also frequently avoid using institutional treatment and other services, either because they fear being registered as illicit drug users and prosecuted, or because they feel that the drug-dependence treatment on offer would not respond to their needs. Consequently, the drug users who could benefit most from HIV/AIDS prevention services and drug- dependence treatment are often the least likely to use these services.

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Rapid Situation Assessment of Malaysia 2004. Reid G, Kamarulzaman A and Sran SK (2004)

Rapid Situation Assessment of Malaysia 2004. Reid G, Kamarulzaman A and Sran SK (2004) the people. The government has implemented various strategies to tackle drug use with the current goal of achieving a drug free society by 2015. Yet, even with increasing draconian punishments imposed for drug use there was a substantial rise in both new and relapse drug user cases.

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Scaling up Provision of Anti-Retrovirals to IDUs and Non IDUs in Asia. International Harm Reduction Association, HO and Asian Harm Reduction Network (2004)

Scaling up Provision of Anti-Retrovirals to IDUs and Non IDUs in Asia. International Harm Reduction Association, HO and Asian Harm Reduction Network (2004) This report was prepared to support WHO efforts to introduce and scale up anti-retroviral therapy (ARV) according to the “WHO 3x5” initiative which is designed to provide three million people with ARV by the year 2005. The International Harm Reduction Association (IHRA) together with regional harm reduction networks was asked to recommend strategies for scaling up ARV to injecting drug users (IDU) and to identify the potential role of the harm reduction networks.

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Behavioral and Sero Prevalence Survey among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Eastern Nepal. New ERA and STD/AIDS Counseling and Training Service, FHI, et al (2003)

Lao PDR 2009 Surveillance Surveys: Behavioral Survey among Service Women and Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey among Men who have Sex with Men in Luang Prabang. Center for HIV/AIDS/STI Lao (2009)

HIV transmission among drug users is typically associated with those who share needles or syringes. Risky behavior has been defined here as needle sharing behaviors, unprotected sex with various partners and female sex workers.

 

 

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Estimation of Drug Users and Injecting Drug Users in Malaysia. Ministry of Health Malaysia, University Utara Malaysia and WHO (2003)

Estimation of Drug Users and Injecting Drug Users in Malaysia. Ministry of Health Malaysia, Universiti Utara Malaysia and WHO (2003) As other developing countries, Malaysia is also facing a plethora of social problems resulting from economic, developmental and societal growth. One of them is drug addiction, which has long being recognized as a serious problem at an epidemic proportion since the early 1970’s. Despite strict laws and penalties for drug use and trafficking, illicit drug use is high and continues to rise. The drug problem that was then considered as a social problem was redefined as a security problem in 1983, where specific laws were formulated to curb the epidemic. However, the number of drug users identified each year still increases.

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Guiding Principles to Ensure Injection Device Security. WHO (2003)

Guiding Principles to Ensure Injection Device Security. WHO (2003) Injections are the most common health care procedure worldwide. In developing and transitional countries alone, some 16 thousand million injections are administered each year.1 Most injections, more than 90%, are given for therapeutic purposes while 5 to 10% are given for preventive services, including immunization and family planning. The majority of therapeutic injections in developing and transitional countries are unnecessary.

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HIV Knowledge and Risk Behaviors among Pakistani and Afghani Drug Users in Quetta Pakistan. Zafar T, Brahmbhatt H, Imam G, et al (2003)

HIV Knowledge and Risk Behaviors among Pakistani and Afghani Drug Users in Quetta Pakistan. Zafar T, Brahmbhatt H, Imam G, et al (2003) Situated on the Pakistan-Afghan border, Quetta is home to growing numbers of Afghan refugees. We studied HIV knowledge and risk behaviors among Pakistani and Afghani drug users between July 2001 and November 2001.

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HIV Prevention and Care for Injection Drug Users. FHI-Impact and USAID (2003)

HIV Prevention and Care for Injection Drug Users. Impact, FHI and USAID (2003) HIV incidence continues to rise among injection drug users (IDUs). Injection drug use accounts for only 5 percent to 10 percent of cumulative HIV infections globally, but in some parts of the world it is the major mode of trans- mission. It is estimated that in China, Malaysia, and Vietnam, at least half of HIV infections are associated with drug injection. In parts of Central and Eastern Europe and the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, we have observed a rapid spread of HIV among IDUs.

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Manual for Reducing Drug Related Harm in Asia. The Centre for Harm Reduction, Burnet Institute, Asian Harm Reduction Network, et al (2003)

Manual for Reducing Drug Related Harm in Asia. The Centre for Harm Reduction, Burnet Institute, Asian Harm Reduction Network, et al (2003) OF ALL the epidemics of HIV (the ‘AIDS virus’) among the different groups in the community whose behaviours put them at risk, none is more rapid or devastating than epidemics among people who inject drugs. But at the same time, nowhere in the field of AIDS prevention are there such dazzling success stories than with prevention of HIV among injecting drug users.

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