Scaling up HIV Treatment, Care and Support for Injecting Drug Users in Vietnam. Maher L, Coupland H and Musson R (2007)

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People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in developing countries are rarely consulted about ways to promote their health and well-being. This study sought to identify and understand, from the perspective of PLWHA, challenges and opportunities for improving access to HIV treatment, care and support in Vietnam, a resource-limited setting with an epidemic driven by injecting drug use.


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Selling Syringes to Injecting Drug Users: A Study of Five Pharmacies in Hanoi, Vietnam. Pankonin CA, Higgs P, Reid G, et al (2007)

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The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) continues to spread rapidly in many developing nations with injecting drug use and the sharing of used needles and syringes remaining a significant risk factor.


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A Comprehensive Intervention Based on Peer Education for Injecting Drug Users in Lang Son. Ngu D, Duy N, Son NT, et al (2006)

A Comprehensive Intervention Based on Peer Education for Injecting Drug Users in Lang Son. Ngu D, Duy N, Son NT, et al (2006) This is a presentation on results obtained from the implementation of the project, "A comprehensive intervention based on peer education for injecting drug users" in Lang Son. The objective of this project is to restrain HIV/AIDS epidemic within IDUs and from this group in to community in Lamg Son.

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A Comprehensive Intervention Based on Peer Education for Injecting Drug Users in Lang Son. Ngu D, Duy N, Son NT, et al (2006)

A Comprehensive Intervention Based on Peer Education for Injecting Drug Users in Lang Son. Ngu D, Duy N, Son NT, et al (2006) This is a presentation on results obtained from the implementation of the project, "A comprehensive intervention based on peer education for injecting drug users" in Lang Son. The objective of this project is to restrain HIV/AIDS epidemic within IDUs and from this group in to community in Lamg Son.

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Bhutan Summary Report on Drugs and Crime. Unknown Author (2006)

Bhutan Summary Report on Drugs and Crime. Unknown Author (2006) Nestled in the remote eastern Himalayas, the tiny mountainous Kingdom of Bhutan is flanked by India to the south and the Tibet region of China to the north. Bhutan is a formal Buddhist state where power is shared by the king (“Druk Gyalpo”), Head of the Monastic Body (“Je Khenpo”) and the government. Despite its increasing living standards, the country remains largely closed to the outside world.

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HIV Prevalence and Factors Associated with HIV Infection among Male Injection Drug Users Under 30: A Cross Sectional Study in Long An, Vietnam. Tran TMT, Nguyen HT, Yatsuya H, et al (2006)

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Sufficient targeted HIV prevention activities aiming at reducing HIV transmission within and from an extremely marginalized population of injection drug users (IDUs) must urgently and efficiently be implemented in Vietnam. This study was conducted to facilitate the development of such activities by describing transmission risks of young IDUs and evaluating factors in association with HIV infection.


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HIV Prevention among Injecting Drug Users in Transitional and Developing Countries. UNAIDS (2006)

HIV Prevention among Injecting Drug Users in Transitional and Developing Countries. UNAIDS (2006) UNAIDS commissioned this report to investigate programmes and sites in developing and transitional countries which were regarded by international authorities as “high coverage sites” i.e. where more than 50% of injecting drug users had been reached by one or more HIV- prevention programmes. In all, seven sites were examined, including Soligorsk, Belarus; Pskov, Russian Federation; Sumy, Ukraine; Dhaka, Bangladesh; Rajshahi, Bangladesh; Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong SAR), People’s Republic of China; and Salvador, Brazil.

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HIV/AIDS and Drug Use in Burma/Myanmar. Transnational Institute and Burma Centrum Nederland (2006)

HIV/AIDS and Drug Use in Burma/Myanmar. Transnational Institute and Burma Centrum Nederland (2006) The increasing number of injecting drug us- ers (IDUs) and the growing HIV/AIDS epi- demic in Burma presents one of the most serious health threats to the population in the country, and also to the region at large. Infection rates among IDUs in Burma are among the highest in the world.

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Injection Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of Current Situation, Prevention and Policy Implications. Qian HZ, Schumacher JE, Chen HT, et al (2006)

Injection Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of Current Situation, Prevention and Policy Implications. Qian HZ, Schumacher JE, Chen HT, et al (2006) Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasingly important drug consuming market. About half of China's 1.14 million documented drug users inject, and many share needles. IDU has contributed to 42% of cumulatively reported HIV/AIDS cases thus far. Drug trafficking is illegal in China and can lead to the death penalty. The public security departments adopt "zero tolerance" approach to drug use, which conflict with harm reduction policies of the public health departments. Past experience in China suggests that cracking down on drug smuggling and prohibiting drug use alone can not prevent or solve all illicit drug related problems in the era of globalization. In recent years, the central government has outlined a series of pragmatic policies to encourage harm reduction programs; meanwhile, some local governments have not fully mobilized to deal with drug abuse and HIV/AIDS problems seriously. Strengthening government leadership at both central and local levels; scaling up methadone substitution and needle exchange programs; making HIV voluntary counseling and testing available and affordable to both urban and rural drug users; and increasing utilization of outreach and non-governmental organizations are offered as additional strategies to help cope with China's HIV and drug abuse problem.

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Lao PDR – United Nations Regional Task Force on Injecting Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific Baseline Assessment Dec 2006. United Nations Regional Task Force on Injecting Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific (2006)

HIV Knowledge and Risk Behaviors among Pakistani and Afghani Drug Users in Quetta Pakistan. Zafar T, Brahmbhatt H, Imam G, et al (2003)

Lao PDR – United Nations Regional Task Force on Injecting Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific Baseline Assessment Dec 2006. United Nations Regional Task Force on Injecting Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific (2006)


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