Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) Survey among People Who Inject Drugs (PWIDs) in Western to Far Western Terai Highway Districts of Nepal Round V - 2016. National Centre for AIDS and STD Control. (2016)


This is the fifth round of Integrated Biological and Behavioral (IBBS) survey conducted among People who Inject Drugs (PWIDs) male in 7 Terai highway districts of Western, Mid-Western and Far-Western regions of Nepal. This survey finds out the prevalence of HIV, Syphilis, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. The drug injecting and sexual risk behavior related to HIV and AIDS, STIs, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C has been assessed. The knowledge of the PWIDs related to prevention of HIV and AIDS, STIs and HCV and their health care seeking behavior has also been identified. A cross-sectional two-stage sampling methods were applied to recruit sample, where 300 samples were covered in this survey. This survey was carried out during February- March 2016.

Keywords: Nepal, IBBS, HIV, PWID, prevalence, hepatitis C, condom use


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Key Populations taking the Lead. LINKAGES. (2016)


In many countries, however, men who have sex with men, sex workers, transgender people, and people who inject drugs are taking the lead to ensure that their peers receive the services they need. This issue of The Link highlights some of these efforts as it examines the promise of peer-led and peer-assisted interventions designed to increase access to and uptake of HIV prevention, care, and treatment services.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, harm reduction, stigma and discrimination, health services, key populations

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People who Use Drugs: Stop TB Key Populations Brief. Stop TB Partnership. (2016)


Globally, people who use drugs (PWUD) remain stigmatized and criminalized, which contributes to devastating health disparities, including extremely high rates of TB often combined with HIV and viral hepatitis. The range of these health issues and the prevailing lack of integrated health services capable of delivering TB, HIV, and harm reduction services in one place largely contribute to the scope of the TB crisis in communities of PWUD.

Keywords: TB, PWUD, HIV, advocacy, community, laws, policy, criminalization, treatment, stigma

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Position Paper: Ending the HIV and Hepatitis C Epidemics among People who Inject Drugs. McLean S and et al. (2016)


This is the Alliance's position paper on HIV, drugs and drug policy in the lead up to the UN General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Problem, 2016.

The sharing of injecting equipment is driving HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in many parts of the world. Roughly one third of new HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa are the result of unsafe injecting. In 2014 alone, an estimated 110,000 people who inject drugs were newly infected with HIV.

The evidence for the effectiveness of harm reduction interventions is described by UNAIDS as irrefutable and all relevant UN agencies now endorse a harm reduction approach to HIV and drug use. Cost-effective harm reduction programmes that use peer-based outreach and feature clean needle and syringe programmes, opiate substitution therapy and HIV testing and treatment are proven to be effective in reducing HIV transmission and other harms such as hepatitis C transmission, crime rates and overdose deaths.


Keywords: HIV, testing, treatment, harm reduction, drug, police harassment, health services


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Readiness Assessment: Moving towards a Country-led and - Financed HIV Response for Key Populations. USAID, PEPFAR and Health Policy Project. (2016)


This new guide from the USAID- and PEPFAR-funded Health Policy Project is a flexible tool for assessing the readiness and ability of country stakeholders (including government, development partners, and civil society) to sustain HIV epidemic control among key populations when donors transition to different levels and types of funding.

Keywords: guide, sex workers (SWs), men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender persons (TG), and people who inject drugs (PWID)

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The Case for a Harm Reduction Decade. Cook C, Phelan M, Sander G, Stone K and Murphy F. (2016)


HIV-related deaths and new HIV infections among people who inject drugs could be almost entirely eliminated by 2030 with just a tiny shift in global drug control spending. This is one finding of our report The Case for a Harm Reduction Decade.

The study uses data we have collected over the last 10 years for our biennial Global State of Harm Reduction reports to assess progress and reflect on challenges faced around the world. Using mathematical modelling, it then outlines the potential impact of increased investment in harm reduction on avoidable health-related harms associated with injecting drug use over the next decade and beyond.

Keywords: HIV, harm reduction, human rights, cost-effectiveness 

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The Global State of Harm Reduction 2016. Stone K. (2016)


The new data in this report shows a worrying slowdown in the provision of harm reduction services for people who use drugs, with no new countries introducing needle and syringe programmes since 2014.

Along with this, there has been a rise in injecting stimulant use across all regions of the world, and a dramatic increase in overdose deaths.

Harm reduction in prisons also remains vastly insufficient, with only a very small number of countries providing needle exchange or overdose training in at least one prison.


Keywords: HIV, PWID, prisoners, drug, OST, NSP, hepatitis C, needle/syringe


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The World Drug Report 2016. UNODC. (2016)


The World Drug Report 2016 is published in the wake of the landmark moment in global drug policy, the special session of the General Assembly on the world drug problem. Chapter I provides a global overview of the supply of and demand for opiates, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) and new psychoactive substances (NPS), as well as their impact on health. It also reviews the scientific evidence on polydrug use, treatment demand for cannabis and developments since the legalization of cannabis for recreational use in some parts of the world. Chapter II focuses on the mechanisms of the interaction between the world drug problem and all aspects of sustainable development through the lens of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Keywords: HIV, PWID, PLHIV, drugs, prevalence, hepatitis, tuberculosis


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Women Speak Out: Understanding Women who Inject Drugs in Indonesia. Stoicescu C. (2016)


Indonesia is home to about 74,000 people who inject drugs, of whom 11% are women. Compared with men who inject drugs, women who inject drugs experience an elevated risk of HIV and other blood borne virus transmission, disproportionately high rates of violence from both intimate and non-intimate partners, and social exclusion. Despite their specific needs and greater marginalisation, this group has been largely neglected in Indonesia’s national HIV strategy.

The study explored sexual and injecting behaviours, health indicators, gender-based violence, contact with law enforcement, and uptake of health and support services among women who inject drugs. The broad objective of the study was to better understand the experiences of women who inject drugs and to inform evidence-based responses that can mitigate the impacts of drug use and HIV and AIDS on this vulnerable population in Indonesia.


Keywords: HIV, PWID, women, sexual reproductive health, health services, needle and syringe



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Consensus Statement on Drug Use under Prohibition - Human Rights, Health, and the Law. Levy J. (2015)


This is the International Network of People who Use Drugs’ (INPUD) Consensus Statement on Drug Use Under Prohibition. It focusses on human rights, health, and the law in relation to people who use drugs. The document is informed by the perspective of those who are so catastrophically impacted by global prohibition and by the so-called ‘war on drugs’: people who use drugs themselves. It stems from four regional consultations conducted by the INPUD Secretariat in 2015 with representatives of 24 drug user organisations from 28 countries. Consultations took place in Dar es Salaam, Bangkok, London, and in Tbilisi, and we also conducted a virtual consultation.

Keywords: INPUD, HIV, harm reduction, human rights, gender, health services, violence


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