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The Linkages across the Continuum of HIV Services for Key Populations Affected by HIV (LINKAGES) project conducts a range of HIV prevention activities to reduce HIV transmission among key populations (sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender persons and people who inject drugs) and to improve their enrollment and retention in care. These reports offer up-to-date knowledge that can be used to strengthen HIV and AIDS programming for key populations worldwide.
Keywords: HIV, assessment, key populations, data analysis
The objectives are to estimate the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among PWID and PWUD and HCV among PWID, to examine HIV risk behaviors among PWID and PWUD: illicit drug use behaviors, substance abuse, and other health issues including healthcare seeking behaviors and exposure to HIV programs and to estimate the national population size of PWID and PWUD by types of drug used.
The media has a critical role to play in correcting the myths surrounding drug use that has for decades, helped create an environment of misunder-standing, distrust and discrimination against people who use drugs. Drugs change the structure of the brain and how it works12 and yet drug use is seldom reported as a health problem.
Media coverage has mostly been focused on law enforcement, with drug users often portrayed as criminals. This negative portrayal adds to the stigma and discrimination against drug users, discouraging them from accessing essential health services, including HIV prevention and treatment services.
In regards to current drug trends, particularly methamphetamine (both in crystal and pill form) has become increasingly accessible and affordable throughout Asia, reflecting the trend of rising use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in the region.
Governments in the SEA region have implemented different kinds of national drug policy reform, including diversion programmes (Indonesia and Cambodia), harm reduction measures (Malaysia and Myanmar), and steps towards decriminalisation of cannabis cultivation and use for medical and scientific purposes (Thailand).
In Harm Reduction International’s 2010 report on the state of global funding for harm reduction, we stressed, ‘more money is needed for harm reduction, and it is needed now’. Sadly, this statement remains true in 2018. Harm reduction interventions for people who use drugs—such as needle and syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST)—are cost-effective, protect against HIV and hepatitis C, and save lives. Despite the potential for these interventions to contribute to healthier communities, funding for harm reduction in lowand middle-income countries (LMICs) has flat-lined over the past decade.
Following last year's 20th anniversary edition, the World Drug Report 2018 is again presented in a special five-booklet format designed to enhance reader friendliness while maintaining the wealth of information contained within. Booklet 1 summarizes the content of the four subsequent substantive booklets and presents policy implications drawn from their findings. Booklet 2 provides a global overview of the latest estimates of and trends in the supply, use and health consequences of drugs. Booklet 3 examines current estimates of and trends in the cultivation, production and consumption of the three plant-based drugs (cocaine, opiates and cannabis), reviews the latest developments in cannabis policies and provides an analysis of the global synthetic drugs market, including new psychoactive substances. Booklet 4 looks at the extent of drug use across age groups, particularly among young and older people, by reviewing the risks and vulnerabilities to drug use in young people, the health and social consequences they experience and their role in drug supply, as well as highlighting issues related to the health care needs of older people who use drugs. Finally, Booklet 5 focuses on the specific issues related to drug use among women, including the social and health consequences of drug use and access to treatment by women with drug use disorders; it also discusses the role played by women in the drug supply chain.
Keywords: drugs, women, young people, prisoners, health care, treatment
This policy briefing was drafted by a group of local and international organisations with in-depth knowledge and extensive experience of drug-related issues in Myanmar. It is structured around a set of five strategic interventions, each of which comes with concrete recommendations that are adapted to the Myanmar context. It contains reliable, up-to-date information and examples of evidence-based practices from Myanmar and around the world.
In Hong Kong, the number of HIV cases transmitted through injecting drug use (IDU) has remained low up till now and contributed to less than 5% of all reported cases cumulatively. However, the potential risk of cluster outbreak and rapid upsurge of infection among the IDU population is always a concern. To monitor HIV-related risk behaviours and access to HIV testing services among IDU, this population has been included as one of the four at-risk populations in the HIV/AIDS Response Indicator Survey (HARiS) implemented since 2013. The fourth round of survey was conducted in 2016 via commissioning to the Stanley Ho Centre for Emerging Infectious Disease, School of Public Health and Primary Care of the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
This is the first round of the IBBS survey conducted among Female Injecting Drug Users (FIDUs) in Pokhara Valley. The females of 16 years and above who had been injecting drugs for at least three months preceding the survey were defined as FIDUs and enrolled in the survey. School of Planning Monitoring Evaluation and Research (SPMER) carried out this survey from December 2016 to May 2017 under the leadership of NCASC. The survey was undertaken primarily to determine the prevalence of HIV, Syphilis, Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) infection among FIDUs.
This Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) survey was carried out by Intrepid Nepal (INPL) under the leadership of the National Center for AIDS and STD Control (NCASC). People Who Inject Drugs (PWIDS) is considered as one of the key affected populations (KAPs) at a higher risk of spreading the HIV epidemic. This is the seven round of the IBBS study conducted among PWID s in Eastern Teri highway districts of Nepal.
Keywords: HIV, PWID, STI, HCV, HBV, syphilis, condom