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Pervasive stigma, social isolation and harsh criminal penalties for drug use exacerbate the risk of HIV acquisition and impede access to HIV prevention, care and treatment services among people who inject drugs. This brief seeks to help policymakers and program implementers understand and address the HIV needs and human rights of people who inject drugs.
This resource is intended for harm reduction service providers with limited experience of working with children and young people who inject drugs. It sets out a process that you can go through quickly, with little cost, to prepare for work with children and young people who are under 18. It is designed to help your organisation and staff to feel safe in commencing this work, and to support you in thinking through the challenging situations and decisions that you face. In some cases, it may lead you to decide that you are not yet ready to go ahead with this work.
This report analyses recent trends and developments of the synthetic drugs market in East and South-East Asia and Oceania, comprising both amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) and new psychoactive substances (NPS). NPS are substances of abuse that are not controlled by the International Drug Conventions but which may pose a public health threat. In this context, the term ‘new’ does not necessarily refer to new inventions but to substances that have recently become available. East and South-East Asia and Oceania has the largest ATS market in the world and in recent years the scope and availability of NPS has rapidly expanded. Moreover, this synthetic drugs market is becoming more complex and interconnected with other regions. These developments warrant an in-depth study to understand the current threat and impact of ATS and NPS in East and South-East Asia and Oceania within a global context.
The International Journal of Drug Policy (ISSN 0955-3959). For 2015, volume 26 (12 issues) is scheduled for publication. Subscription prices are available upon request from the Publisher or from the Elsevier Customer Service Department nearest you or from this journal’s website (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/drugpo). Further information is available on this journal and other Elsevier products through Elsevier’s website: (http://www.elsevier.com). Subscriptions are accepted on a prepaid basis only and are entered on a calendar year basis. Issues are sent by standard mail (surface within Europe, air delivery outside Europe). Priority rates are available upon request. Claims for missing issues should be made within six months of the date of dispatch.
This infographic highlights the criminalisation and punishment imposed on people who use drugs, which constitute key legal and policy barriers to achieving universal access. These barriers must be removed in order to make any significant progress in achieving regional and global commitments to people who use drugs.
Please visit International Drug Policy Consortium for more information.
Keywords: HIV, prison, law enforcement, human rights, drug
On 21 October 2015, Switzerland and Colombia co-chaired an event in Geneva entitled UNGASS on the World Drug Problem: People, Public Health, and Human Rights at the Centre—a High-Level Multi-Stakeholder Perspective.
The event raised awareness at a high-level among missions in Geneva, civil society and other partners on the importance of the public health and human rights dimension in the context of the world drug problem, as well as of the close intersection between these two themes. Forty-six countries from all the regions were represented, as well as the European Union, the Council of Europe, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and civil society.
This executive summary seeks to put forth the key messages of the high-level stakeholder event without interpretation in order to inform the discussions leading up to the production of the outcome document to be adopted by the General Assembly on the occasion of UNGASS 2016 on the World Drug Problem.
Keywords: HIV, hepatitis C, PWID, drugs, treatment, discrimination, human rights
An explosive HIV epidemic among PWID exists in Cebu City. In 2008 HIV transmission was primarily due to sexual contact (90%), but by 2012 it was injecting drug use (77%). The 2011 biological and behavioural surveillance in Cebu City reported HIV prevalence among PWID to be 54%, with Hepatitis C prevalence reaching 94%. The same study found 15% of freelance female sex workers had injected drugs and among male injectors 24% reported same sex behaviours. There are an estimated 6000 PWID in metro Cebu, with 2000 - 2500 PWID in Cebu City, of which the majority share their injecting equipment; many are sexually active, resulting in spread of HIV to their non-injecting wives/ partners and then possibly to their babies. The current public health crisis requires an urgent and well coordinated response.
According to the First ASEAN Regional Report on HIV and AIDS in 2011, “Addressing AIDS in ASEAN Region”, there are 1.5 million people estimated to be living with HIV distributed amongst the ASEAN Member States (AMS). The national HIV prevalence rates in the region range from 0.1 per cent to 0.7 per cent. Although prevalence rates are decreasing, current estimates indicate that there are some AMS that are showing an increasing trend.
This assessment was carried out to understand the dynamics of risk behavior and to provide a description of the current situation of the HIV epidemic in Bangladesh as well as its future projections. The study was supported by: the National AIDS/STD Program (NASP), IEDCR, Save the Children, UNAIDS Bangladesh, icddr,b and CDC Atlanta.
The aim of the study is to understand the HIV transmission dynamics and epidemiological trends in Dhaka city and to estimate the extent to which harm reduction interventions among PWID have contributed towards the epidemiological trends and reduced HIV transmission in the city. Cost efficiency of the existing harm reduction interventions is also examined.
Keywords: HIV, Bangladesh, Dhaka, AEM, prevalence, deaths, ART, infections
Vietnam has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with the highest HIV prevalence being observed among people who inject drugs (PWID). Based on its experience scaling-up robust HIV interventions, Vietnam aims to further strengthen its response by harnessing the preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Mathematical modelling suggests that prioritizing key populations for earlier access to ART, combined with other prevention interventions, may have significant impact on the epidemic, cost-effectively reducing new HIV infections and deaths. Pilot studies are being conducted to assess feasibility and acceptability of expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and early ART among key populations and to demonstrate innovative service delivery models to address challenges in uptake of services across the care cascade. Earlier access of key populations to combination prevention interventions, combined with sustained political commitment and supportive environment for key populations, are essential for maximum impact of ART on the HIV epidemic in Vietnam.
Keywords: Antiretroviral therapy, HIV prevention, Concentrated epidemic, Vietnam, People who inject drugs