Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) Survey among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal - Round V - 2011. USAID, ASHA (2011)

global hivaids response progress report unaids 2011

This report details the findings of the fifth round of the IBBS conducted among 340 male IDUs in the Kathmandu Valley, recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). A structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents at a centrally located survey center. The questionnaire collected information on sexual behavior and HIV/AIDS awareness as well as socio-demographics. After the interview, clinical examinations were conducted by a Health Assistant and blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis testing by a lab technician. The test results were provided in coordination with pre- and post-test counseling by a trained counselor in the survey center.



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Mapping and Size Estimation of Most At Rist Population in Nepal Vol. 2 Injecting Drug Users. National Centre for AIDS and STD Control, Nepal (2011)

IDUs final_report

Nepal conducted a mapping and size estimation exercise of Most at Risk Population (MARP) groups in consideration of the epidemic’s nature, limited information available on the MARP groups of Female Sex Workers (FSWs), Men having Sex with Men (MSMs), and Injecting Drug User (IDUs) population,and the need for a more robust and evidence informed response to HIV in order to maximize results.




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Mapping for Selecting Activity Sites and Identifying Un-served IDUs in Dhaka, Rajshahi, Sylhet & Barisal Divisions. National AIDS/STD Programme and Save the Children (2011)

mapping for_selecting_activity_sites_2011

The Government of Bangladesh recognizes that as injecting drug users (IDUs) are at the forefront of the emerging HIV epidemic in Bangladesh, it is imperative to act urgently to prevent further escalation of the epidemic. Global experience has shown that implementation of effective harm reduction services for epidemic in Dhaka.

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Peer-based Behavioral Health Program for Drug Users in China: A Pilot Study. Shen SY, Zhang ZB, Tucker JD, et al (2011)


Many injection drug users (IDUs) in China have high risk sexual behaviors that contribute to the spread of HIV infection. Although many IDUs in China move through drug rehabilitation centers, this opportunity for sexual health education has largely been overlooked.

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Predictors of Weight Change in Male HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Hanoi, Vietnam. Tang AM, Sheehan HB, Jordan MR, et al (2011)


Access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) has expanded rapidly in many moderate-to low-income countries affected by the HIV epidemic. In addition to reducing mortality rates, ART has many favorable effects among people living with HIV (PLHIV), such as improving weight and lean body mass, particularly in patients with greater pretreatment immunological and virological compromise

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Profile, Drug Use Pattern, Risk Behavior and Selected Bio-Markers of Women Drug Users from Seven Sites in Nepal. Ministry of Home Affairs Nepal and UNODC (2011)

Profile Drug_use_pattern_Risk_Behavior_and_selected_Biomarkers_of_women_drug_users_from_seven_sites_in_Nepal

World Drug Report (2010) estimates that there are 16 to 38 million problem drug users across the world and that about 11 to 21 million inject drugs.  Based on a desk review, it was estimated that 3·0 million (range 0·8 - 6·6 million) of those who inject drugs might be HIV positive.



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Report on Mapping for Selecting Activity Sites and Identifying Un-served IDUs in Dhaka, Chittagong and Khulna Divisions. National AIDS/STD Programme and Save the Children (2011)

Mapping for_selecting_activity_sites_and_identifying_unserved_IDUs

This Rapid Situation and Response Assessment (RSRA) among injecting drug users in selected areas of Bangladesh is a cross-sectional study comprising of both qualitative and quantitative method to gather data on the drug use situation and drug users. 

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The Hidden Truth Nepal - A Study of HIV Vulnerability, Risk Factors and Prevalence among the Wives and Intimate Partners of Men who Inject Drugs. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Netherlands, Mainline Foundation, Amsterdam, et al (2011)

The hidden_truth

In Nepal injecting drug use is recognised as a significant driver of the HIV epidemic due to high levels of needle/syringe sharing and insufficient coverage of HIV prevention services. Previous studies have assessed people who inject drugs as a “most at risk population”, and have missed the opportunity to understand the related risks and vulnerability of their wives, intimate partners, children and communities. The “Hidden Truth - Nepal” has revealed previously unrecognised risks and vulnerability of wives, intimate partners and children of men who inject drugs in Kathmandu, Nepal.



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The Spread of HIV in Pakistan: Bridging of the Epidemic between Populations. Khanani MR, Somani M, Rehmani SS, et al (2011)

Of Transgender and Sin in Asia. Winter  S (2006)

In the last two decades, ‘concentrated epidemics’ of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have established in several high risk groups in Pakistan, including Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) and among men who have sex with men (MSM). To explore the transmission patterns of HIV infection in these major high-risk groups of Pakistan, 76 HIV samples were analyzed from MSM, their female spouses and children, along with 26 samples from a previously studied cohort of IDUs.

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Women who Use Drugs, Harm Reduction and HIV. The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS. (2011)


This issue brief about HIV, harm reduction and the sexual and reproductive health and rights of women who use drugs is part of a series of briefng papers, commissioned by the Global Coalition on Women and AIDS (GCWA), and is designed to provide up-to-date information around key issues concerning HIV prevention, treatment and care related to women and girls. Harm reduction refers to policies, programmes and practices that aim to reduce the harms associated with the use of psychoactive drugs. The defning features are the focus on the prevention of harm, rather than on the prevention of drug use itself, including a focus on people who continue to use drugs.

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