Peer-based Behavioral Health Program for Drug Users in China: A Pilot Study. Shen SY, Zhang ZB, Tucker JD, et al (2011)

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Many injection drug users (IDUs) in China have high risk sexual behaviors that contribute to the spread of HIV infection. Although many IDUs in China move through drug rehabilitation centers, this opportunity for sexual health education has largely been overlooked.


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Predictors of Weight Change in Male HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Hanoi, Vietnam. Tang AM, Sheehan HB, Jordan MR, et al (2011)

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Access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) has expanded rapidly in many moderate-to low-income countries affected by the HIV epidemic. In addition to reducing mortality rates, ART has many favorable effects among people living with HIV (PLHIV), such as improving weight and lean body mass, particularly in patients with greater pretreatment immunological and virological compromise


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Profile, Drug Use Pattern, Risk Behavior and Selected Bio-Markers of Women Drug Users from Seven Sites in Nepal. Ministry of Home Affairs Nepal and UNODC (2011)

Profile Drug_use_pattern_Risk_Behavior_and_selected_Biomarkers_of_women_drug_users_from_seven_sites_in_Nepal

World Drug Report (2010) estimates that there are 16 to 38 million problem drug users across the world and that about 11 to 21 million inject drugs.  Based on a desk review, it was estimated that 3·0 million (range 0·8 - 6·6 million) of those who inject drugs might be HIV positive.

 

 

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Report on Mapping for Selecting Activity Sites and Identifying Un-served IDUs in Dhaka, Chittagong and Khulna Divisions. National AIDS/STD Programme and Save the Children (2011)

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This Rapid Situation and Response Assessment (RSRA) among injecting drug users in selected areas of Bangladesh is a cross-sectional study comprising of both qualitative and quantitative method to gather data on the drug use situation and drug users. 


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The Hidden Truth Nepal - A Study of HIV Vulnerability, Risk Factors and Prevalence among the Wives and Intimate Partners of Men who Inject Drugs. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Netherlands, Mainline Foundation, Amsterdam, et al (2011)

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In Nepal injecting drug use is recognised as a significant driver of the HIV epidemic due to high levels of needle/syringe sharing and insufficient coverage of HIV prevention services. Previous studies have assessed people who inject drugs as a “most at risk population”, and have missed the opportunity to understand the related risks and vulnerability of their wives, intimate partners, children and communities. The “Hidden Truth - Nepal” has revealed previously unrecognised risks and vulnerability of wives, intimate partners and children of men who inject drugs in Kathmandu, Nepal.

 

 

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The Spread of HIV in Pakistan: Bridging of the Epidemic between Populations. Khanani MR, Somani M, Rehmani SS, et al (2011)

Of Transgender and Sin in Asia. Winter  S (2006)

In the last two decades, ‘concentrated epidemics’ of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have established in several high risk groups in Pakistan, including Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) and among men who have sex with men (MSM). To explore the transmission patterns of HIV infection in these major high-risk groups of Pakistan, 76 HIV samples were analyzed from MSM, their female spouses and children, along with 26 samples from a previously studied cohort of IDUs.


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Women who Use Drugs, Harm Reduction and HIV. The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS. (2011)

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This issue brief about HIV, harm reduction and the sexual and reproductive health and rights of women who use drugs is part of a series of briefng papers, commissioned by the Global Coalition on Women and AIDS (GCWA), and is designed to provide up-to-date information around key issues concerning HIV prevention, treatment and care related to women and girls. Harm reduction refers to policies, programmes and practices that aim to reduce the harms associated with the use of psychoactive drugs. The defning features are the focus on the prevention of harm, rather than on the prevention of drug use itself, including a focus on people who continue to use drugs.

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A Preview of Law and Policy in South and South East Asia: Drugs, Treatment and Harm Reduction. The Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit (2010)

A Preview of Law and Policy in South and South East Asia: Drugs, Treatment and Harm Reduction. The Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit (2010) Unsafe injecting practices among people using drugs is a primary driver of HIV in many parts of Asia. As the fastest and most efficient route of transmission, injecting drug use with unsterile equipment is considered ‘explosive’ to the rapid spread of HIV. This impending threat is significant for a number of countries in South and South East Asia that report highest incidence of HIV infections among injecting drug users(IDUs).

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A Strategy to Halt and Reverse the HIV Epidemic among People Who Inject Drugs in Asia and the Pacific 2010-2015. WHO, USAID, UNODC, et al (2010)

A Strategy to Halt and Reverse the HIV Epidemic among People Who Inject Drugs in Asia and the Pacific 2010-2015. WHO, USAID, UNODC, et al (2010) A strategy to halt and reverse the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in Asia and the Pacific, 2010–2015 A regional strategy (2010–2015) for removing the barriers to “universal access” and “harm reduction” to halt the epidemics of HIV and viral hepatitis among and from people who inject drugs (PWID) in Asia and the Pacific was developed by the United Nations Regional Task Force on Injecting Drug Use and HIV/AIDS for Asia and the Pacific. It was developed in pursuit of the sixth Millennium Development Goal (MDG)2 which is to “Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases”. Specifically, the targets are to “Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS among 15–24-year-olds (6.1), increase condom use at high risk sex (6.2) and ensure that those who need it will have universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment including antiretroviral drugs by 2010 (6.5)”.

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A Strategy to Halt and Reverse the HIV Epidemic among People who Inject Drugs in Asia and the Pacific 2010-2015. WHO. (2010)

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The response in the Asia Pacific region to the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs is varied. There are many needle and syringe programmes, methadone and buprenorphine clinics are becoming increasingly available, and access to antiretroviral therapy for people who use drugs is continuing to increase. But these efforts have not been sufficiently scaled up to halt the spread of HIV. New challenges such as the co-infection with hepatitis C and the increasing use of methamphetamines are impacting the early gains in the response to HIV, jeopardizing further success in the region. In addition, poor promotion of condoms in the current response is facilitating the spread of HIV from people who use drugs to their sexual partners and the population at large.

 


Keywords: HIV, drug policy, human rights, health services

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Highlighted publications
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http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/India_IBBS_report_2014-15.pdf
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http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Death_Penalty_for_Drug_Offences_Global_Overview_2015.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Transforming_our_world_2015_UN.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/WHO_Consolidated_on_the_use_of_antiretroviral_drugs_for_treating_and_preventing_HIV_infection_2016.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Consolidated_Strategic_Information_Guidelines_for_HIV_in_Health_Sector_2015.pdf
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