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Experience of Self-stigma among Young Men who Have Sex with Men and Young Transgender Women and the Linkages to HIV in Asia and the Pacific.
To better understand how self-stigma relates to HIV, YVC undertook an in-person consultation in October 2012 in Bangkok, Thailand, and commissioned in-country research in 10 countries: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam.
Keywords: TG, MSM, condom use, sexual violence, criminalize, discrimination
In 2011, the fourth round of the Integrated HIV Behavioral and Serologic Surveillance (IHBSS) was led by the Department of Health. The IHBSS would provide crucial strategic information that would influence and provide direction for policies, programs, and services to help address the escalating epidemic of HIV in the Philippines and its consequent burden. The most-at-risk populations (MARPS) were included in the surveillance and in this report - Males who have sex with Males (MSM), Female Sex Workers (FSW), and Injecting Drug Users (IDU).
The objective of the IHBSS is to determine the: (a) prevalence of HIV and syphilis among the key affected populations and establish trend over time, (b) behavioral factors that are associated with STI and HIV transmission and their effect on the HIV epidemic in the country, (c) outcome of STI and HIV intervention programs and (d) to provide strategic information to guide STI and HIV policies, programs and services.
The purpose of the study is threefold:
(1) To describe and document experiences of rejection and discrimination of lesbian, and young transgender persons, and the impact of this on their lives;
Despite being a low HIV/AIDS prevalence country, Bangladesh has all the characteristics of high-risk behaviors for initiating an HIV/AIDS epidemic. This includes considerable high prevalence of pre and extra-marital sex, low condom use, less awareness but significant prevalence of STIs, low knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention, high prevalence of STIs among sex workers, existence of needle/syringe sharing among drug users and high prevalence of HIV infection among injecting drugs users.
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As part of this initiative, we have compiled this volume of articles published in peer-reviewed journals, which represents selected documented work. The volume is divided into four sections: Section I presents evidence on the changing epidemiology of the epidemic and the impact of HIV/AIDS prevention programs; Section II brings together learnings from program interventions including community mobilization interventions for female sex workers; Section III focuses on the vulnerabilities of high-risk groups such as female sex workers, MSM and IDUs; and Section IV includes papers on the vulnerabilities of bridge populations such as migrants, male clients of sex workers and trucker populations. Research highlights are presented at the start of each section. Sequential page numbers have been added to the published papers for easy reference.
Gender-based violence (GBV) is commonly thought of as an issue affecting primarily women and girls; however, stigma, discrimination and violence are also expressed toward men who have sex with men (MSM), male sex workers (MSW) and transgender (TG) individuals. While there is an increasing body of research among sexual minorities identifying the association between GBV and physical and mental health issues, including increased risk of contracting HIV, programs for these populations tend to focus on raising HIV awareness to reduce sexual risks. A better understanding of GBV among MSM/MSW/TG populations is necessary in order to develop clear and targeted recommendations for future interventions targeting this issue.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) has continued to account for a significant proportion of newly acquired HIV infections in Hong Kong. The last community based survey "HIV Prevalence and Risk Behavioural Survey of Men who have sex with men in Hong Kong" (PRiSM) was conducted in 2011. To track the epidemic and inform intervention, MSM was included as the one of the four major at-risk populations in the HIV/AIDS Response Indicator Survey (HARiS). The first HARiS was conducted in 2013, via commissioning to the Stanley Ho Centre for Emerging Infectious Disease, School of Public Health and Primary Care of the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
The Judicial Dialogue provided a critical opportunity for experience sharing between members of the judiciary and representatives of judicial training institutions from 16 countries across Asia and the Pacific, on the complex legal and human rights issues raised by the HIV epidemic. The Judicial Dialogue also benefited from the perspectives of people living with HIV, representatives of communities of men who have sex with men, transgender people, sex workers and people who use drugs.
The first case of HIV in Bangladesh was detected in 1989.2 Since then, the number of HIV cases has grown to an estimated 7,500 in 2011. This represents less than 0.1 percent of the total population. In 2011, the National AIDS / STD Program (NASP) reported 445 new cases of HIV, 251 new AIDS cases and 84 AIDS related deaths. Thus the cumulative number of reported HIV cases to date in Bangladesh stands at 2,533, AIDS cases at 1,101 and deaths at 325.