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Young MSM are often more vulnerable than older MSM to the effects of homophobia – manifested in discrimination, bullying, harassment, family disapproval, social isolation and violence – as well as criminalization and self-stigmatization.
Keywords: HIV, young people, MSM, harassment, discrimination, testing
This document is a tool containing practical advice on implementing HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) programmes with men who have sex with men. It is based on recommendations contained within the Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations, published in 2014 by the World Health Organization.
Topics covered include community empowerment, addressing violence, condom and lubricant programming, other health-care services, and service delivery. The tool also covers the use of information and communications technology in programming, and offers strategies for managing programmes and building the capacity of organizations of men who have sex with men. It contains examples of good practices from around the world that can be used to support efforts to plan programmes and services with men who have sex with men.
As of 2015, five rounds of IBBS surveys (i.e. Round 1 in 2004, Round 2 in 2007, Round 3 in 2009, Round 4 in 2012, and Round 5 in 2015) have been conducted in Nepal. The main objectives of the IBBS survey were to: determine the prevalence and trend of HIV Syphilis, Chlamydia Trachomati(CT) and Neisseria Gonorrhoea(NG) and associated risk behaviors among MSM/ Transgender (TG), collect information related to socio-demographic characteristics and explore the association between the risk behaviors and HIV and other specific STIs among the MSM/TG population.
Keywords: Nepal, HIV, STI, ART, prevalence, condom use, partners, stigma and discrimination, drug use
This report presents findings from two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2013–2014 among young (18 to 28 years) men who have sex with men (YMSM) in Yangon and Monywa, Myanmar. The primary objective of these surveys was to measure risk and protective factors and HIV related risk behaviours within this population. 200 YMSM were recruited in Yangon and 200 in Monywa using respondent driven sampling (RDS). RDS is a chain-referral sampling method specifically designed to obtain probability-based samples of hard-to-reach populations that are socially networked. Sampling was initiated with seven seeds (initial non-randomly selected members of the survey population) in Yangon and four seeds in Monywa. Eligible YMSM who enrolled in the survey were screened, provided consent and then given a face-to-face interview about their background, sexual identity, sexual history, affiliations with organizations, relationships with family, sexual health and HIV testing.
When compared with the general population, men who have sex with men (MSM) are more likely to be HIV-positive but less likely to have access to safe and competently delivered HIV services. In an effort to illuminate the barriers and facilitators of HIV service utilization for MSM, the Global Forum on MSM & HIV (MSMGF) conducted the third biennial Global Men’s Health and Rights Study (GMHR). This brief presents data from the 2014 GMHR describing access to HIV services among MSM and discusses the implications for strengthening the global HIV response.
The HIV epidemic amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok is substantial. The population size of MSM in Bangkok is 120,000-250,000, with approximately one-third (33.5 percent) considered high-risk, characterized by their young age, multiple partnerships, frequent unprotected anal intercourse, and sexual activities around MSM hotspots. In metropolitan Bangkok, HIV prevalence among MSM reportedly increased from 21 percent to 28 percent between 2000 and 2012. The Thai Working Group of Estimation and Projection (2013) projected an estimate of 39,000 new HIV infections would occur in Thailand during 2012-2016, based on the AIDS Epidemic Model (AEM).
A Framework for Media Engagement on Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Asia: Regional Framework, Literature Review and Country Case Studies provides direction for how men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender communities should engage with the media, and how the media itself should leverage its influence to reduce stigma and discrimination, educate and raise awareness of human rights issues, and support strategies and programmes that improve the political, social and legal environments for MSM and transgender people in South Asia. The report includes case studies from Bangladesh, Nepal and India and provides recommendations for actions by programme managers working in South Asia for both managing media and for empowering communities to work more effectively with media.
Bangladesh has been providing HIV prevention services for males having sex with males (MSM), male sex worker (MSW) and hijra for more than a decade. In parallel to providing HIV prevention services, Bangladesh has been collecting risk behaviour and HIV prevalence data on these population groups through a national surveillance system which was set up by the Government of Bangladesh in 1998. The surveillance system has been crucial in providing key information that has helped Bangladesh to monitor changes in risk behaviours and infection prevalence over time, the data has been the backbone against which the national HIV strategic plans have been developed and global reports have been prepared. These data also enable measuring the effect of the on-going large scale HIV prevention programs for MSM, MSW and hijra.
A good example of how we now operate was the launch of the TestBKK-campaign in which we advocate for regular HIV-testing of our target groups at MSM and friendly health clinics in Bangkok, Thailand. A campaign to call for HIV-testing in itself is not new, but the way in which we organised it, was new and innovative. APCOM brought together a broad partnership of community organisations, the government, local health clinics and the private sector. This is a new and exciting model to share with many colleagues around the world. The campaign was the largest ever seen and unique for Bangkok and Thailand in general. Given its success, the campaign will for sure be repeated.
According to the First ASEAN Regional Report on HIV and AIDS in 2011, “Addressing AIDS in ASEAN Region”, there are 1.5 million people estimated to be living with HIV distributed amongst the ASEAN Member States (AMS). The national HIV prevalence rates in the region range from 0.1 per cent to 0.7 per cent. Although prevalence rates are decreasing, current estimates indicate that there are some AMS that are showing an increasing trend.