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Scientific evidence is essential for policies and programmes to advance the vision of UNAIDS of zero HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths. New scientific information is becoming available at a rapid pace, and many of the findings are potentially important to guide future action against AIDS. To ensure this, UNAIDS has access to the latest scientific developments; a UNAIDS Scientific Expert Panel was established to advise UNAIDS on major new scientific discoveries and research evidence as well as research gaps and strategic AIDS research needs. The Scientific Expert Panel comprises more than 40 scientists from around the world with expertise in a wide range of disciplines, including epidemiology, behavioural science, virology, diagnostics, pathogenesis, immunology, treatment, prevention and cure.
This paper reviews the latest global and local situation of hepatitis A and examines the prevention and control measures of hepatitis A in Hong Kong.
Hepatitis A is inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne infection. It occurs sporadically and in epidemics worldwide. Every year there are an estimated 1.4 million cases of hepatitis A worldwide. Regions with high HAV endemicity include parts of Africa and Asia.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become one of the biggest threats to global health and endangers other major priorities, such as human development. All around the world, many common infections are becoming resistant to the antimicrobial medicines used to treat them, resulting in longer illnesses and more deaths. At the same time, not enough new antimicrobial drugs, especially antibiotics, are being developed to replace older and increasingly ineffective ones.
Global leaders will meet at the United Nations General Assembly in New York in September 2016 to commit to fighting antimicrobial resistance together. This is only the fourth time in the history of the UN that a health topic is discussed at the General Assembly (HIV, noncommunicable diseases, and Ebola were the others). Heads of State and Heads of Delegations are expected to address the seriousness and scope of the situation and to agree on sustainable, multisectoral approaches to addressing antimicrobial resistance.
Keywords: WHO, AMR, Antimicrobial Resistance, High-level Meeting
Until recently, diagnosis and treatment of HCV was complex. Suitable tools for screening and diagnosis were lacking, and treatment was hampered by limited efficacy and severe side effects. New medicines for the treatment of HCV have revolutionized HCV treatment. Combinations of these new medicines, which are generally well-tolerated and effective, can cure HCV in 12 weeks. This offers a huge opportunity to address HCV, in particularly among HIV/HCV co-infected people, who are more vulnerable as they progress faster to serious disease than HCV mono-infected people.
Whether it’s the rising price of the EpiPen, or new outbreaks of diseases, like Ebola, Zika and yellow fever, the rising costs of health technologies and the lack of new tools to tackle health problems, like antimicrobial resistance, is a problem in rich and poor countries alike.
Keywords: TRIPS, Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), health technology, access
The objective of this guideline is to provide a framework for the treatment of Filipino HIV patients using an evidence-based approach, with emphasis on locally available treatment. The target audience is not only the infectious diseases subspecialist who treats HIV but also internists, family physicians, pulmonary specialists and other subspecialists who are taking care of or who wish to care for persons living with HIV.
Within the continuum of reproductive health care, antenatal care (ANC) provides a platform for important healthcare functions, including health promotion, screening and diagnosis, and disease prevention. It has been established that, by implementing timely and appropriate evidence-based practices, ANC can save lives.
Endorsed, by the UN Secretary-General, this is a comprehensive WHO guideline on routine ANC for pregnant women and adolescent girls. It aims to complement existing WHO guidelines on the management of specific pregnancy-related complications. The guidance aims to capture the complex nature of the issues surrounding ANC health care practices and delivery, and to prioritize person-centred health and well-being, not only the prevention of death and morbidity, in accordance with a human rights-based approach.
Keywords: ANC, women, pregnancy, children, adolescent
The sexual partners and drug injecting partners of people diagnosed with HIV infection have an increased probability of also being HIV-positive.
This manual for developing national action plans to address antimicrobial resistance has been developed at the request of the World Health Assembly to assist countries in the initial phase of developing new, or refining existing national action plans in line with the strategic objectives of the Global Action Plan. It proposes an incremental approach that countries can adapt to the specific needs, circumstances and available resources of each individual country. Details of actions to be taken will vary according to national contexts.
The aim of the new initiative is to leverage improved, accessible, affordable and optimally used diagnostic technologies and strategies to ensure achievement of a bold new HIV treatment target for 2020.