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This document provides key considerations on when clinically stable children, adolescents and women who are pregnant or breastfeeding as well as members of key populations (people who inject drugs, sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people and people living in prisons and closed settings) can benefit from access to ART services for clinically stable clients, including less frequent clinic visits and multi-month refills for ART and other medications. The guidance provides the rationale and the approach to expand differentiated ART delivery to populations of people living with HIV who previously may not have been considered “eligible” for ART delivery models for clinically stable clients.
Keywords: HIV, ART, treatment, health care
This second HIVDR report provides an update on recent population levels of HIVDR covering the period 2014–2016. The report includes data from 16 nationally representative surveys from 14 countries estimating resistance in: adults initiating ART (PDR), children younger than 18 months newly diagnosed with HIV, and adults on ART (acquired HIV drug resistance or ADR).
To contextualize results from representative HIVDR surveys, the report is supported by systematic reviews of the published literature on PDR in adults, children and adolescents, and ADR in paediatric and adult populations.
Preventing and managing the emergence of HIVDR is a key component of a comprehensive and effective HIV response, and should be integrated into broader efforts to ensure sustainability and greatest impact. It is essential that actions to monitor, prevent and respond to HIVDR are implemented at the clinical, programme and policy levels to address the many drivers of HIVDR.
The goal of this Global Action Plan is to articulate synergistic actions that will be required to prevent HIVDR from undermining efforts to achieve global targets on health and HIV, and to provide the most effective treatment to all people living with HIV including adults, key populations, pregnant and breastfeeding women, children and adolescents.
The International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO) developed this brief to provide the HIV community with current information and analysis of new and updated clinical data on the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in preventing HIV transmission to sexual partners of people living with HIV. While the health benefits of treatment will always be the primary purpose of ART, it is vital that the secondary benefits to people living with HIV and their sexual partners be fully understood and communicated.
Keywords: HIV, ART, transmission, advocacy, prevention
The advent of point-of-care (POC) Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) technologies is a breakthrough that creates the opportunity to increase coverage of EID testing. It will allow same-day test results and enable the initiation of earlier treatment, as well as address some of the key limitations of conventional EID networks – in particular long turnaround times for tests and high rates of loss to follow up.
This WHO Global hepatitis report describes, for the first time, the global and regional estimates on viral hepatitis in 2015, setting the baseline for tracking progress in implementing the new global strategy.
The report focuses on hepatitis B and C, which are responsible for 96% of all hepatitis mortality. It presents data along the five strategic directions (strategic information, interventions, equity, financing and innovation) – key pillars of the GHSS to facilitate monitoring of progress in countries, regions and globally, and to measure the impact of interventions on reducing new infections and saving lives between 2015 and 2030.
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This report provides in-depth technical discussions in areas that have direct implications to the containment of AMR as a development agenda. The report is organized in five chapters which served as the technical background documents for the Biregional Technical Consultation on AMR in Asia, 14-15 April 2016. More information from the meeting is available in the WHO Meeting Report: Biregional Technical Consultation on Antimicrobial Resistance in Asia. The meeting was the first time senior officials from the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture across Asia came together to tackle AMR.
Keywords: drug resistance, microbial, infection control
Monitoring of individuals on ART is important to ensure treatment efficacy and improved health outcomes.
The 2016 WHO Consolidated Guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection include recommendations on routine monitoring and the diagnosis of treatment failure.
Keywords: HIV, ART, CD4, treatment, testing, monitoring
Viral hepatitis now ranks as the seventh leading cause of mortality worldwide. Although mortality due to communicable diseases has declined globally, the absolute burden and relative ranking of viral hepatitis as a cause of mortality has increased between 1990 and 2013.
Viral hepatitis causes at least as many, if not more, deaths annually compared with TB, AIDS, or malaria. Mortality due to viral hepatitis is increasing with time, while that due to TB, HIV and malaria is declining. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections account for more than 90% of viral hepatitis-related deaths and disability, with hepatitis A and E being responsible for the remaining.
The present guidance was developed with the support of the WHO Advisory Group on Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (AGISAR) to assist countries and other stakeholders in the establishment and development of programmes of integrated surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in the foodborne bacteria (i.e., bacteria commonly transmitted by food) by taking a One Health approach. This guidance document replaces the previous version published in 2013.
Keywords: antimicrobial use, analysis, reporting, data