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This report presents the potential for HIV self-testing to contribute to achieving global 90–90–90 targets for treatment access by 2020, provides projections of the demand for and supply of HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for self-testing and summarizes the emerging market landscape for self-testing. This information will likely be useful for manufacturers, donors, national programmes, researchers and many other global health stakeholders who are exploring the potential role of HIV self-testing.
Keywords: HIV, testing, diagnostic, new technologies
The World Health Organization (WHO) anticipates releasing updated guidance on oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), containing tenofovir (TDF), as an additional HIV prevention choice. The new guidance is likely to be significantly broader than previously and creates real opportunities to move forward with implementing PrEP as part of comprehensive HIV programmes. This publication, produced collaboratively between UNAIDS, WHO and AVAC, is intended to complement WHO recommendations and support the optimal use of oral PrEP to protect individuals and contribute to ending the AIDS epidemic.
Keywords: HIV, PrEP, drugs, national response, testing, prevention
Implementing PrEP poses new challenges in planning, managing and funding combination prevention. Realizing the promise of PrEP will require governments, funders, civil society and other stakeholders to join forces to systematically address them–licensing antiretroviral medicines for PrEP use, setting priorities for locations and populations for implementation, making services user-friendly and ensuring adherence. These efforts are worthwhile based on their contribution to achieving the global targets of less than 500 000 people annually acquiring HIV in 2020 and the end of AIDS as a public health threat by 2030.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an HIV prevention strategy that uses antiretroviral drugs to protect HIV-negative people from HIV infection. People take antiretrovirals (ARVs) when they are at risk of exposure to HIV, in order to lower their risk of infection. Research suggests that PrEP is highly efficacious in preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, as long as the drugs are taken regularly, as directed. However, PrEP does not prevent other sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy.
Keywords: HIV, ARVs, MSM, drug, side-effects, prevention
The WHO HIV Department began its work on PrEP in 2009 to help countries prepare for potential implementation of PrEP, should the trials show sufficient safety and effectiveness. With its partner UNAIDS, and in partnership with Georgetown University School of Law, WHO convened a number of country and regional consultations to address issues of PrEP implementation and to help countries think through the process and the implications.
Keywords: PWID, MSM, transgender people, drugs, sex workers, diagnosis, treatment
In 2014 WHO recommended offering PrEP to men who have sex with men (MSM). On the basis of further evidence of the effectiveness and acceptability of PrEP, WHO has now broadened the recommendation to include all population groups at substantial risk of HIV infection.
Offering PrEP should be a priority for populations with an HIV incidence of about 3 per 100 person-years or higher. PrEP should be an additional prevention choice in a comprehensive package of services that also includes HIV testing, counselling, male and female condoms, lubricants, ARV treatment for partners with HIV infection, voluntary medical male circumcision and harm reduction interventions for people who use drugs.
HIV self‑testing is a process whereby a person who wants to know his or her HIV status collects a specimen, performs a test and interprets the test result in private. HIV self‑testing does not provide a definitive diagnosis; instead, it is a screening test for the presence of HIV-1/2 antibodies or the HIV-1 p24 antigen. Any positive HIV result must be confirmed by a health worker in accordance with national testing algorithms.
APCOM’s Highlight series profile the often unheard of MSM and transgender community- based documentation of good practices from projects across Asia and the Pacific.
APCOM works with individuals and organisations on the Highlight series to form the evidence- based information to be shared across the region and for advocacy on issues that affect the lives of MSM and transgender people, including HIV, rights, health and well being.
This case study focus on using the internet for mass mobilisation of the MSM community for the purpose of HIV testing.
Clinical trials on PrEP began in 2005. These trials have focused on the effectiveness of PrEP among people who inject drugs, HIV serodiscordant couples, heterosexual men and women, women at higher risk of HIV exposure, and men and transgender women who have sex with men (MSM-TG). Of these, two have completed as planned, one was stopped early for effectiveness, and two others were stopped or had arms discontinued for reasons of futility.
Daily HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is being evaluated in clinical trials among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, daily PrEP may not be congruent with sexual exposure profiles of MSM. Here, we investigate sex frequency and sex planning to identify and inform appropriate PrEP strategies for MSM.
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