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This document is intended to address commonly occurring situations and challenges that one faces in carrying out research with adolescents (people aged 10–19 years), the majority of whom are deemed not to have reached the recognized age of majority in their respective settings. To this end, adolescents aged 18 and 19 years are classified as adults in many settings and have the legal capacity to make autonomous decisions regarding their participation in research. In this document, the term “children” refers to people below the age of 18 years, and the term “minor adolescents” refers specifically to people aged 10–18 years.
Keywords: sexual and reproductive health, adolescent, children
In March 2019, there were 1,172 newly confirmed HIVpositive individuals reported to the HIV/AIDS & ART Registry of the Philippines (HARP). Eighteen percent (215) had clinical manifestations of advanced HIV infection (WHO clinical stage 3 or 4) at the time of diagnosis.
WHO is accountable for reporting back to the World Health Assembly on progress in implementing the Global health sector strategies on HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections based on data received from countries. This report assesses the mid-term progress in 2019 in implementing these global health sector strategies from 2016 to 2021.
The timeliness and availability of the data across the three diseases is limited, being for 2016 or 2017 in most cases. Key data, including 2018 impact data on incidence and mortality, were not available for this report, making it difficult to assess and validate overall trends since the launch of the strategies in 2016.
Keywords: HIV, UHC, STI, hepatitis, diagnosis, treatment, financing
In November 2017, 117 national delegations adopted the Moscow Declaration to End TB at the first WHO Global Ministerial Conference on Ending TB: A Multisectoral Response. They committed to “supporting the development of a multisectoral accountability framework” to accelerate progress to end TB. They called on WHO to develop the framework, working in close cooperation with relevant partners.
At the 71st World Health Assembly (WHA) in May 2018, Member States welcomed the WHO draft multisectoral accountability framework (hereafter referred to as the MAF-TB). The WHA also requested the Director-General to continue to develop the MAF-TB, in consultation with Member States, and working in close collaboration with partners, as well as to provide technical support for national adaptation and use of the MAF-TB.
Keywords: SDG, TB, development, funding, monitoring and reporting
World health statistics 2019 summarizes recent trends and levels in life expectancy and causes of death and reports on the health and health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and associated targets. It then summarizes the major findings, including the availability of underlying data for monitoring progress towards the health-related SDGs (Section 9), and concludes by briefly discussing the implications for health policy and the planning of programmes. Annex 1 provides regional level statistics, Annex 2 presents country-level statistics for selected health-related SDG indicators and Annex 3 summarizes WHO regional groupings.
Sex workers experienced stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs for HIV in more than half of the countries that responded to the consultation, in all types of health care settings. Sex workers experience forced treatment interruptions and involuntary medication changes due to stock-outs, and are forced to travel long distances to access commodities and treatments due to stock-outs in their local areas. This ultimately leads to a lack of trust in health services and systems.
With just over a year to go until the UNAIDS 2020 targets, we face a stark reality—there is immense inequality in treatment access among specific populations and in certain locations, despite the considerable accomplishment of delivering life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART) to 21.7 million people, globally.
There is a belief that innovation of new antibiotics will out-pace the development and spread of resistant bacteria. However, without rapidly addressing the way antibiotics are currently over- and mis-used, there is no chance of winning this race. Novel antibiotics will continue to play an important role, but they will not be enough. Antibiotics must be seen as a non-renewable resource. And just like in climate change, if this natural resource is exhausted, there will be nothing left for future generations. Managing antibiotic resistance relies on limiting use of antibiotics, discovery of new antibiotics or alternative ways to treat infectious diseases, but also on preventing infections and limiting spread of resistance. There are no quick fixes – antibiotic resistance is a systems failure and thus all sectors need to contribute to a change and jointly securing that antibiotics remain effective.
This report focuses on the Sustainable Development Goals related to poverty, economic growth, inequality, health, food production and the environment.
This report examines the inclusion of HIV-related data and topics in 2018 Voluntary National Review (VNR) reports of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) implementation and civil society parallel reports. The report builds upon “Getting on Track in Agenda 2030”, which assessed HIV inclusion in the 2017 VNRs.
Keywords: HIV, civil society, inclusion, data
The report proposes a framework of four synergistic elements necessary to advance inclusion, empowerment and equality: rights and justice; norms and institutions; resources and capabilities; participation and voice. The need for action on all four fronts is illustrated by a deeper look at three pivotal challenges confronted by the region – (1) climate change and its potential to deepen inequality; (2) the urgent need to boost domestic resource mobilization; and (3) the need to strengthen social accountability and civic engagement. It draws out policy messages on how an empowerment-and-inclusion approach to policymaking can be fostered, including on addressing violence against women and girls. The report provides strong evidence that promoting empowerment and inclusion are necessary approaches to reduce inequality and accelerate progress towards a broad array of Sustainable Development Goals. It is a contribution to the ongoing national, regional and global dialogues on opportunities to empower people, ensure their inclusion and advance equality.