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HIV spending in Myanmar has been constantly increasing, reaching a record US$109.5 million in 2017, which represents a 21% increase of the 2016 amount (US$ 90.3 million).
This guideline document lays out the indicators for monitoring the 2016 Political Declaration on ending AIDS. The Global AIDS Monitoring (GAM) process has been often referenced as a benchmark for successful international accountability mechanisms.
Globally, one in five people with HIV are unaware of their status, despite considerable scale up of HIV testing, treatment and prevention services. Many of those unreached by HIV testing services (HTS) are from key populations, partners of people with HIV and, in Eastern and southern Africa, men and young people. Improving the availability, accessibility, friendliness and quality of services is important to address these testing gaps.
At the same time, tools and interventions that increase the demand for HTS are needed to reach people who are uninformed about HTS options and advances in treatment and prevention, people who are not motivated to seek HTS and those who are hesitant to test because of fear of an HIV diagnosis or other reasons.
Social network-based HIV testing is an approach for engaging sexual and drug injecting partners and social contacts of key population members with HIV and of those who are HIV-negative and at ongoing risk in voluntary HTS.
By addressing people’s confidentiality concerns and broadening the reach to social contacts, social network-based HIV testing approaches can improve the acceptability of partner services among key populations and so reach more people who may not otherwise test for HIV. WHO now recommends that social network-based HIV testing approaches can be offered for key populations.
HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a convenient and confidential option for HIV testing. In 2016 WHO recommended HIVST as a safe, accurate and effective way to reach people who may not test otherwise, including people from key populations, men and young people. Lay users can perform HIVST reliably and accurately and achieve performance comparable to that of trained health-care workers.
Globally, many countries have developed HIVST policies, and implementation is growing rapidly. This policy brief highlights new guidance to optimize HIVST implementation, including effective service delivery models, linkage to care and support tools.
HIV testing services (HTS) and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) have been scaled up substantially. It is estimated that, globally, nearly 80% of people with HIV now know their status. With the offer of immediate ART initiation and improved treatment options, access to and uptake of treatment have increased, too. Now, most people with HIV who know their status are obtaining treatment and care.
In response to these changes in the global HIV epidemic, WHO is encouraging countries to use three consecutive reactive tests for an HIV-positive diagnosis as their treatment-adjusted prevalence and national HTS positivity fall below 5%.
WHO recommends that pregnant women receive testing for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B (HBSAg) at least once during pregnancy, preferably in the first trimester.
Dual HIV/syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can be used as the first test for pregnant women as part of antenatal care (ANC).
These simple tests can be used at the point-of-care and are cost-saving compared to standard testing in ANC. They enable more women to be diagnosed with HIV and syphilis so that they can access treatment and prevent transmission to their children.
These consolidated guidelines bring together existing and new evidence-based guidance and recommendations for delivering high-impact HIV testing services, including linkage to HIV prevention and treatment, in diverse settings and populations.
A key objective of these guidelines is to encourage greater national and global commitment to implementing effective and efficient HTS as a vital element of the national and global HIV response, essential to achieving and maintaining low HIV incidence.
Cambodia has a rich and interesting history of HIV epidemic. First case of HIV was detected in 1991, that was 7 years after the first case identified in the neighboring Thailand, but epidemic escalates very quickly in Cambodia and by mid-1990s Cambodia became one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. But Cambodia had successfully turned the epidemic around within 5 years after the epidemic had reached its peak and maintained its success in the past decade, resulting in 62% decline in new HIV infections between 2010 and 2018.1 Furthermore, the country is well publicized as one of the early achievers of 90-90-90 treatment targets in the global scale and these achievements have put the country under the spotlight in maintaining the success while accelerating the efforts to fill the response gaps.
Keywords: Cambodia, HIV, AIDS, data, size estimates, key populations
National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA) provides a framework and tools for undertaking a comprehensive analysis of actual HIV expenditures (health and non- health). It equips decision makers with strategic information that allow countries to mobilize resources and improve accountability mechanism for efficient and effective programme implementation. Between 2009-2015, Cambodia has conducted five rounds of NASA and this report summarizes the HIV expenditures for the period of 2016-2017.