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This Report presents the latest findings from collation and analysis of viral hepatitis data obtained from the disease notification system, service statistics, seroprevalence studies and other research findings. Much hopeful that the local viral hepatitis picture can be painted accurately and fully, this is certainly limited by the nature and availability of data. The presence of biases in data per se and their interpretation need to be acknowledged in reading this Report.
Scientific evidence is essential for policies and programmes to advance the vision of UNAIDS of zero HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths. New scientific information is becoming available at a rapid pace, and many of the findings are potentially important to guide future action against AIDS. To ensure this, UNAIDS has access to the latest scientific developments; a UNAIDS Scientific Expert Panel was established to advise UNAIDS on major new scientific discoveries and research evidence as well as research gaps and strategic AIDS research needs. The Scientific Expert Panel comprises more than 40 scientists from around the world with expertise in a wide range of disciplines, including epidemiology, behavioural science, virology, diagnostics, pathogenesis, immunology, treatment, prevention and cure.
While scaling up access to all treatment and prevention options that currently exist is essential, it is not sufficient. There remains a critical need for additional options. In addition to the introduction of oral-TDF based PrEP and the open-lable extension studies of the vaginal dapivirine ring, there are a number of efficacy trials planned or underway. They're tackling virtually every intervention—from next-generation PrEP in the form of F/TAF, a drug that will soon be tested for efficacy as daily oral PrEP, to long-acting injectables, vaccines and antibody-mediated prevention.
The report finds that prices of older HIV drugs continue to decline, while newer drugs remain largely priced out of reach. This is in large part because pharmaceutical corporations maintain monopolies that block price-lowering generic competition.
Today, the lowest available price for a quality-assured, World Health Organization-recommended first-line one-pill-a-day combination is US$100 per person per year (tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz). This is a decrease of 26 per cent since MSF last recorded the lowest price for first-line treatment at US$136 in 2014. For a WHO-recommended second-line regimen, the lowest available price is now US$286 per person per year (zidovudine/lamivudine + atazanavir/ritonavir) – an 11 per cent decrease from US$322 two years ago.
This paper reviews the latest global and local situation of hepatitis A and examines the prevention and control measures of hepatitis A in Hong Kong.
Hepatitis A is inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne infection. It occurs sporadically and in epidemics worldwide. Every year there are an estimated 1.4 million cases of hepatitis A worldwide. Regions with high HAV endemicity include parts of Africa and Asia.
Given the higher rates of acquisition seen across so-called key populations—members of highly burdened and underserved groups—it is critical to provide access to the research process such that they can participate and reap more immediate benefit of scientific progress. Greater efforts must be made to include key populations in this crucial process for the HIV prevention response to be truly impactful.
Excerpted from Px Wire.
2015 confirmed a significant recent trend in the flagship WHO Model List of Essential Medicines with groundbreaking new treatments for hepatitis C and a variety of cancers included in the list despite their high prices. The list also included five new medicines for multidrug resistant tuberculosis (TB), among other updates. Traditionally considered a tool for developing countries to use as a guide for national medicines selection, the WHO Essential Medicines List is increasingly seen as a tool to increase access globally.
The publication presents cascade of HIV testing, care and treatment services, 2014–2015 for Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor Leste.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become one of the biggest threats to global health and endangers other major priorities, such as human development. All around the world, many common infections are becoming resistant to the antimicrobial medicines used to treat them, resulting in longer illnesses and more deaths. At the same time, not enough new antimicrobial drugs, especially antibiotics, are being developed to replace older and increasingly ineffective ones.
Global leaders will meet at the United Nations General Assembly in New York in September 2016 to commit to fighting antimicrobial resistance together. This is only the fourth time in the history of the UN that a health topic is discussed at the General Assembly (HIV, noncommunicable diseases, and Ebola were the others). Heads of State and Heads of Delegations are expected to address the seriousness and scope of the situation and to agree on sustainable, multisectoral approaches to addressing antimicrobial resistance.
Keywords: WHO, AMR, Antimicrobial Resistance, High-level Meeting
Until recently, diagnosis and treatment of HCV was complex. Suitable tools for screening and diagnosis were lacking, and treatment was hampered by limited efficacy and severe side effects. New medicines for the treatment of HCV have revolutionized HCV treatment. Combinations of these new medicines, which are generally well-tolerated and effective, can cure HCV in 12 weeks. This offers a huge opportunity to address HCV, in particularly among HIV/HCV co-infected people, who are more vulnerable as they progress faster to serious disease than HCV mono-infected people.