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The WHO/HIVResNet Laboratory Operational Framework describes how WHO HIVResNet laboratories function to support national, regional, and global HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) surveillance by providing accurate genotyping results in a standardized format according to WHO specifications.
Keywords: HIV, laboratory services, drug resistance
Competition law is an important policy tool that LMICs can use to protect consumer welfare and promote industrial and economic development. It aims to restrict unfair business practices, and promote quicker introduction and increased availability of health technologies. The issue brief highlights key aspects of using competition law to promote access to health technologies from UNDP’s landmark publication “Using Competition Law to Promote Access to Health Technologies: A guidebook for low- and middle-income countries.” The issue brief intends to be a resource for policymakers, national competition authorities, national procurement agencies, health authorities, civil society and other actors who have an interest in understanding the critical role of competition authorities in promoting access to health technologies.
Keywords: HIV, TB, LMICs, access, medicines, laws
This book represents the consolidated knowledge and experience related to the policies and management of universal access to ART in Thailand. It aims to serve as an important tool to share knowledge with and advocate the policy of universal health coverage (UHC) to policymakers in the other developing nations that are working towards achieving UHC inclusive of the continuum of HIV and AIDS care services
Keywords: Thailand, HIV, PLHIV, ART, treatment, health system
Viral hepatitis now ranks as the seventh leading cause of mortality worldwide. Although mortality due to communicable diseases has declined globally, the absolute burden and relative ranking of viral hepatitis as a cause of mortality has increased between 1990 and 2013.
Viral hepatitis causes at least as many, if not more, deaths annually compared with TB, AIDS, or malaria. Mortality due to viral hepatitis is increasing with time, while that due to TB, HIV and malaria is declining. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections account for more than 90% of viral hepatitis-related deaths and disability, with hepatitis A and E being responsible for the remaining.
Monitoring of individuals on ART is important to ensure treatment efficacy and improved health outcomes.
The 2016 WHO Consolidated Guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection include recommendations on routine monitoring and the diagnosis of treatment failure.
Keywords: HIV, ART, CD4, treatment, testing, monitoring
This report highlights the key results achieved over Phase II of the MHTF, from 2014 to 2016, structured around the three cross-cutting principles of accountability, equality of access and quality of care, as outlined in the MHTF Business Plan Phase II (2014-2017). The report foregrounds the MHTF’s role in supporting health systems strengthening, and addresses its catalytic nature, its promotion of sustainability and its strong emphasis on advancing innovation.
WHO has recommended adopting drug regimens with high potency, lower toxicity, high genetic barriers to resistance, usefulness across different populations and lower cost. The use of optimized drug regimens can improve the durability of the treatment and quality of care of people living with HIV.
Adopting optimized antiretroviral (ARV) drug regimens can significantly affect the speed at which the 90 –90 –90 targets are achieved, enhancing access to treatment and improving treatment outcomes with impact on treatment adherence, viral suppression and the quality of life of people living with HIV, reducing pressures on health systems and the risk of HIV transmission.
The primary purpose of antiretroviral therapy is to keep people living with HIV in good health. In the large majority of people living with HIV, antiretroviral medication can be chosen that reduce the amount of HIV in the blood to levels that are undetectable by standard laboratory tests. It can take some months to reduce viral levels to undetectable levels and allow the immune system to begin to recover.
This document provides key considerations on when clinically stable children, adolescents and women who are pregnant or breastfeeding as well as members of key populations (people who inject drugs, sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people and people living in prisons and closed settings) can benefit from access to ART services for clinically stable clients, including less frequent clinic visits and multi-month refills for ART and other medications. The guidance provides the rationale and the approach to expand differentiated ART delivery to populations of people living with HIV who previously may not have been considered “eligible” for ART delivery models for clinically stable clients.
Keywords: HIV, ART, treatment, health care
According to the WHO, about 2.3 million people are co-infected with HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Moreover, there were an estimated 1.75 million new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections worldwide in 2015. HCV usually presents only mild symptoms, if any, until it is at an advanced stage, thereby making it difficult to recognize the disease early.