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The International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO) developed this brief to provide the HIV community with current information and analysis of new and updated clinical data on the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in preventing HIV transmission to sexual partners of people living with HIV. While the health benefits of treatment will always be the primary purpose of ART, it is vital that the secondary benefits to people living with HIV and their sexual partners be fully understood and communicated.
Keywords: HIV, ART, transmission, advocacy, prevention
The advent of point-of-care (POC) Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) technologies is a breakthrough that creates the opportunity to increase coverage of EID testing. It will allow same-day test results and enable the initiation of earlier treatment, as well as address some of the key limitations of conventional EID networks – in particular long turnaround times for tests and high rates of loss to follow up.
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has long since been a neglected disease, given long latency periods before any chronic illness manifests, and the low cure rate and numerous side effects of the pegylated interferon-ribavirin treatment (hereinafter PEGINF). However, of late, given the development of revolutionary drugs called direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that can cure the disease in as little as 8 weeks, international interest, and with it, international financial investment, has peaked.
The World Health Organization was requested by Member States to develop a global priority pathogens list (global PPL) of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to help in prioritizing the research and development (R&D) of new and effective antibiotic treatments. To date, the selection of pathogens for R&D activities has been largely guided by small and large pharmaceutical companies according to a variety of parameters, such as perceived/unmet medical need, pressure of investors, market size, scientific discovery potential, and availability of specific technologies. Previous PPLs, issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Infographic on hepatitis produced by WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific.
This report presents background information on Kiribati, its health-care system and the national epidemiology of hepatitis. It then details review findings and recommendations under each priority area of action of the Regional Action Plan for Viral Hepatitis in the Western Pacific 2016–2020: broad-based advocacy and awareness, evidence-based policy guiding comprehensive hepatitis action, data supporting the hepatitis response, stopping transmission, and an accessible and effective treatment cascade.
Keywords: co-infection, transmission, treatment cascade, policy
The Action Plan (2016-2021) for addressing viral hepatitis in the WHO South-East Asia Region has been developed in consultation with Member States, community stakeholders, development partners, academia and professional societies. Drawing upon the Global Health Sector Strategy for Viral Hepatitis (2016–2021) and using the framework of universal health coverage to ensure that no one is left behind, the Action Plan provides a roadmap for priority areas of focus and interventions within the health and related sectors that are needed at the national level to mount an effective and efficient response to prevention, diagnosis, management and care of viral hepatitis.
Monitoring of individuals on ART is important to ensure treatment efficacy and improved health outcomes.
The 2016 WHO Consolidated Guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection include recommendations on routine monitoring and the diagnosis of treatment failure.
Keywords: HIV, ART, CD4, treatment, testing, monitoring
The primary purpose of antiretroviral therapy is to keep people living with HIV in good health. In the large majority of people living with HIV, antiretroviral medication can be chosen that reduce the amount of HIV in the blood to levels that are undetectable by standard laboratory tests. It can take some months to reduce viral levels to undetectable levels and allow the immune system to begin to recover.
This strategic framework provides a road map to scale-up PPTCT services in the most efficient manner, where value for money is achieved with the promise that no infected mother will be missed and no child will be born with HIV, where every HIV exposed infant will receive the much needed HIV test at 6 weeks of age, and linked to treatment where required.