HIV/AIDS Epidemic in India: Risk Factors, Risk Behavior & Strategies for Prevention & Control. Godbole S and Mehendale S (2005)

HIV/AIDS Epidemic in India: Risk Factors, Risk Behavior & Strategies for Prevention & Control. Godbole S and Mehendale S (2005) Since the first report of HIV infection in India in 1986, the virus has spread all over the country although there is geographic variation. There are estimated 5.1 million people infected with HIV with an overall estimated adult prevalence below 1 per cent. Surveys carried out in different sub-populations have yielded prevalence estimates, but data on HIV incidence are limited. Both HIV serotypes 1 and 2 exist in India and HIV-1 C is the commonest subtype reported. Sexual transmission of HIV is most predominant. Spread of HIV in intravenous drug use settings is localized mostly in the north eastern region and metropolitan cities and parent to child transmission is on the rise.

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Project Performance Assessment Report Indonesia: Indonesia HIV/AIDS and STDs Prevention and Management Project. The World Bank (2005)

Project Performance Assessment Report Indonesia: Indonesia HIV/AIDS and STDs Prevention and Management Project. The World Bank (2005) The Operations Evaluation Department assesses the programs and activities of the World Bank for two purposes: first, to ensure the integrity of the Bank’s self-evaluation process and to verify that the Bank’s work is producing the expected results, and second, to help develop improved directions, policies, and procedures through the dissemination of lessons drawn from experience. As part of this work, OED annually assesses about 25 percent of the Bank’s lending operations.


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Guidelines for HIV Diagnosis and Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy. WHO (2005)

Guidelines for HIV Diagnosis and Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy. WHO (2005) The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has changed the social, moral, economic and health fabric of the world in a short span. Today HIV/AIDS is the greatest health crisis faced by the global community. Till date, this pandemic has killed nearly 30 million people. More than 40 million are living with HIV, and to this pool, an additional 14 000 are added everyday. It is expected that, if not treated, 3 million people will die every year of HIV/AIDS. It is estimated that of the millions of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in developing countries, 6 million people require antiretroviral therapy (ART). Most of these are in 34 high burden countries of Africa and Asia.

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“3 by 5” Progress Report 2004. UNAIDS and WHO (2005)

“3 by 5” Progress Report 2004. UNAIDS and WHO (2005) In the second half of 2004, the number of people on antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in developing and transitional countries increased dramatically from 440 000 to an estimated 700 000. This figure represents about 12% of the approximately 5.8 million people currently needing treatment in developing and transitional countries and includes people receiving ARV therapy supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the World Bank and other partners.

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Standard Operating Procedures for Antiretroviral Therapy. FHI-Impact and USAID (2005)

Standard Operating Procedures for Antiretroviral Therapy. FHI, Impact and USAID (2005) With significant reduction in the cost of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become increasingly real for people in low-resource settings. In many countries, governments have developed national guidelines on ART management to define care standards and establish protocols for such areas as eligibility criteria, drug regimens and monitoring HIV-infected clients on ART.

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Policy Brief: Antiretroviral Therapy and Injecting Drug Users. WHO, UNODC and UNAIDS. (2005)

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This policy brief reviews the evidence to date on providing antiretroviral (ARV) therapy to HIV-positive injecting drug users. A number of related medical, psychological and social issues are also addressed including the need to manage drug interactions and the benefi t of harm reduction interventions in supporting optimum care for HIV-positive injecting drug users.

 

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, IDU, ARV, treatment, prison

 

 

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Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Positive Adults and Adolescents in Pakistan. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan (2005)

Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Positive Adults and Adolescents in Pakistan. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan (2005) Successful treatment of HIV/AIDS depends on strict adherence by HIV positive patients in taking their medications as instructed and for health care providers to recommend antiretroviral treatment (ART) based on rigorous scientific evidence. The devastating consequences of incorrect or partial HIV treatment are premature death, increased morbidity, development of drug resistant HIV strains, and lack of further treatment options.

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Progress on Global Access to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy. UNAIDS and WHO (2005)

Progress on Global Access to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy. UNAIDS and WHO (2005) Since late 2003, when WHO and UNAIDS launched a strategy for ensuring treatment for 3 million people living with HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries by the end of 2005 (the “3 by 5” target), coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in these countries has more than doubled – increasing from 400 000 to approximately 1 million people receiving treatment at the end of June 2005. To date, 14 of these countries are providing ART to at least 50 per cent of those who need it, consistent with the “3 by 5” target.

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China: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. WHO (2005)

China: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. WHO (2005) China has a low overall HIV prevalence but high prevalence in certain population groups and at some sites. WHO/UNAIDS estimated that 840 000 people in 0–49 years old were living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2004, and the estimated HIV prevalence was 0.07% (with a low estimate of 0.05% and a high estimate of 0.08%). There are geographical differences in prevalence levels within subpopulations. Since 2001, reported HIV/AIDS cases have increased at a 30% annual rate, most likely as a result of increased surveillance. HIV is reported from 31 of China’s 34 provinces and other administrative units on mainland China.

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Myanmar: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale up. WHO (2005)

Myanmar: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale up. WHO (2005) With national estimated prevalence of between 0.6% and 2.2%, Myanmar is experiencing a generalized epidemic, considered one of the most serious in Asia. The Ministry of Health estimates that 338 911 adults aged 15–49 years old were living with HIV/AIDS in September 2004, of which 96 834 (28.6%) were women, indicating a total adult prevalence rate of 1.3%. HIV infection rates vary across the country, with several regions showing considerable increases in prevalence rates among less vulnerable populations. According to the Ministry of Health, in 2003, 12 of 29 sentinel sites for pregnant women showed a prevalence of HIV infection exceeding 2%. At Pyay and Hpa-an, prevalence rates among pregnant women were as high as 5% and 7.5% respectively.

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