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The primary purpose of antiretroviral therapy is to keep people living with HIV in good health. In the large majority of people living with HIV, antiretroviral medication can be chosen that reduce the amount of HIV in the blood to levels that are undetectable by standard laboratory tests. It can take some months to reduce viral levels to undetectable levels and allow the immune system to begin to recover.
This report is an account of the Region’s progress in developing and implementing NAPs. The report provides a platform to track what is going well, and to identify areas where extra efforts are needed. In the report, the regional roadmap for strengthening national AMR prevention and containment programmes is analysed with a specific methodology. The results gathered have been compiled to contribute to country profiles which make the report more useful.
Keywords: AMR, situation analysis, surveillance, prevention
With the 2016 Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection, WHO updated and launched new policy recommendations on the clinical and service delivery aspects of HIV treatment and care, and raised the bar to treat all PLHIV (Treat All). WHO has worked with countries to ensure uptake and implementation of these recommendations in support of the to the 90-90-90 targets.
According to the WHO, about 2.3 million people are co-infected with HIV and the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Moreover, there were an estimated 1.75 million new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections worldwide in 2015. HCV usually presents only mild symptoms, if any, until it is at an advanced stage, thereby making it difficult to recognize the disease early.
The 90-90-90 targets and the HIV testing and treatment cascade are two ways of looking at the same data. The targets were instrumental in galvanizing global action for HIV treatment access.
Keywords: HIV, PLHIV, targets, treatment, testing
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has long since been a neglected disease, given long latency periods before any chronic illness manifests, and the low cure rate and numerous side effects of the pegylated interferon-ribavirin treatment (hereinafter PEGINF). However, of late, given the development of revolutionary drugs called direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that can cure the disease in as little as 8 weeks, international interest, and with it, international financial investment, has peaked.
The WHO/HIVResNet Laboratory Operational Framework describes how WHO HIVResNet laboratories function to support national, regional, and global HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) surveillance by providing accurate genotyping results in a standardized format according to WHO specifications.
Keywords: HIV, laboratory services, drug resistance
Infographic on hepatitis produced by WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific.
This report presents background information on Kiribati, its health-care system and the national epidemiology of hepatitis. It then details review findings and recommendations under each priority area of action of the Regional Action Plan for Viral Hepatitis in the Western Pacific 2016–2020: broad-based advocacy and awareness, evidence-based policy guiding comprehensive hepatitis action, data supporting the hepatitis response, stopping transmission, and an accessible and effective treatment cascade.
Keywords: co-infection, transmission, treatment cascade, policy
Competition law is an important policy tool that LMICs can use to protect consumer welfare and promote industrial and economic development. It aims to restrict unfair business practices, and promote quicker introduction and increased availability of health technologies. The issue brief highlights key aspects of using competition law to promote access to health technologies from UNDP’s landmark publication “Using Competition Law to Promote Access to Health Technologies: A guidebook for low- and middle-income countries.” The issue brief intends to be a resource for policymakers, national competition authorities, national procurement agencies, health authorities, civil society and other actors who have an interest in understanding the critical role of competition authorities in promoting access to health technologies.
Keywords: HIV, TB, LMICs, access, medicines, laws