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The advent of point-of-care (POC) Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) technologies is a breakthrough that creates the opportunity to increase coverage of EID testing. It will allow same-day test results and enable the initiation of earlier treatment, as well as address some of the key limitations of conventional EID networks – in particular long turnaround times for tests and high rates of loss to follow up.
Infographic on hepatitis produced by WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific.
This report provides in-depth technical discussions in areas that have direct implications to the containment of AMR as a development agenda. The report is organized in five chapters which served as the technical background documents for the Biregional Technical Consultation on AMR in Asia, 14-15 April 2016. More information from the meeting is available in the WHO Meeting Report: Biregional Technical Consultation on Antimicrobial Resistance in Asia. The meeting was the first time senior officials from the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture across Asia came together to tackle AMR.
Keywords: drug resistance, microbial, infection control
Drug use and supply have been a sensitive and high-priority issue for successive governments in China since at least the Opium Wars in the mid-19th century. China’s policy response to drug use relies on punishment and coercion as central components, including compulsory detoxification, detention in labour camps or so-called ‘rehabilitation’ facilities, and compulsory registration with law enforcement authorities resulting in surveillance and random interrogations.
Yet, in the late-1990s, in a policy move that appeared to emphasize healthcare instead of punishment for people who inject drugs, China began implementing the world’s largest scale-up provision of opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programmes (NSP) – two critical harm reduction measures for preventing HIV transmission. However, the overall approach towards people who use drugs remains punitive and stigmatising in China. As drug use continues to rise and expand across a greater range of drugs (especially synthetic drugs such as methamphetamine), as well as amongst younger age groups, China requires a comprehensive system of evidence-based and humane drug treatment and harm reduction services capable of advancing the health and quality of life of individuals and communities.
Keywords: China, HIV, PWID, NSPs and OST, drugs, health, law
The International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO) developed this brief to provide the HIV community with current information and analysis of new and updated clinical data on the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in preventing HIV transmission to sexual partners of people living with HIV. While the health benefits of treatment will always be the primary purpose of ART, it is vital that the secondary benefits to people living with HIV and their sexual partners be fully understood and communicated.
Keywords: HIV, ART, transmission, advocacy, prevention
This report presents background information on Kiribati, its health-care system and the national epidemiology of hepatitis. It then details review findings and recommendations under each priority area of action of the Regional Action Plan for Viral Hepatitis in the Western Pacific 2016–2020: broad-based advocacy and awareness, evidence-based policy guiding comprehensive hepatitis action, data supporting the hepatitis response, stopping transmission, and an accessible and effective treatment cascade.
Keywords: co-infection, transmission, treatment cascade, policy
The present guidance was developed with the support of the WHO Advisory Group on Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (AGISAR) to assist countries and other stakeholders in the establishment and development of programmes of integrated surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in the foodborne bacteria (i.e., bacteria commonly transmitted by food) by taking a One Health approach. This guidance document replaces the previous version published in 2013.
Keywords: antimicrobial use, analysis, reporting, data
Monitoring of individuals on ART is important to ensure treatment efficacy and improved health outcomes.
The 2016 WHO Consolidated Guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection include recommendations on routine monitoring and the diagnosis of treatment failure.
Keywords: HIV, ART, CD4, treatment, testing, monitoring
This handbook has been written by a group of patients in British Columbia. We all have long experience with medication-assisted treatments for opioid dependence. The language about drug use is complex. The latest version of the manual that defines diseases and disorders (DSM-V) no longer refers to “dependence” and uses “addiction” instead. In this handbook, we continue to use “dependence” to refer to our experience of “needing the drug” and significant withdrawal symptoms when trying to quit or cut down on our use. Deciding to seek help is an important step in any process of recovery. You are making a wise decision to seek help now. People dependent on opioid drugs and not receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST) are many times more likely to die or be seriously harmed by problem drug use.
This report is an account of the Region’s progress in developing and implementing NAPs. The report provides a platform to track what is going well, and to identify areas where extra efforts are needed. In the report, the regional roadmap for strengthening national AMR prevention and containment programmes is analysed with a specific methodology. The results gathered have been compiled to contribute to country profiles which make the report more useful.
Keywords: AMR, situation analysis, surveillance, prevention