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Update on antiretroviral regimens for treating and preventing HIV infection: Since 2016, WHO has recommended tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) + lamivudine (3TC) (or emtricitabine, FTC) + efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg as the preferred first- line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen for adults and adolescents. WHO recommended dolutegravir (DTG) as an alternative option to EFV for first-line ART because of the uncertainty regarding the safety and efficacy of DTG during pregnancy and among people living with HIV receiving rifampicin-based tuberculosis (TB) treatment.
Update on early infant diagnosis of HIV: In 2016, WHO recommended that HIV virological testing be used to diagnose HIV infection among infants and children younger than 18 months and that ART be started without delay while a second specimen is collected to confirm the initial positive virological test result.
Keywords: HIV, ART, diagnosis, treatment
Twenty years of evidence demonstrates that HIV treatment is highly effective in reducing the transmission of HIV. People living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy who have an undetectable level of HIV in their blood have a negligible risk of transmitting HIV sexually.
Every child should be given the best chance to start life healthy and free from preventable diseases. Mother-to-Child transmission to HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis can be effectively prevented by immunization, and screening and treatment of pregnant woman.
The Regional Framework for the Triple Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV, Hepatitis B and Syphilis in Asia and the Pacific 2018-2030 suggests a coordinated approach to delivering these interventions using the shared maternal, newborn and child health platform to achieve elimination.
This is the first time this regimen will be offered as an affordable, generic, fixed-dose combination, which will increase access for millions of people living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries. Below are a set of key messages and questions and answers to guide communications around the announcement and respond to media inquiries.
Keywords: HIV, ART, treatment, medicines, funding
In 2016, the Kingdom of Thailand formally decided to re-allocate responsibility for drug dependence treatment from the Ministry of Justice (MOJ) to the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) by the end of 2018. The reforms are designed to increase voluntary access to client-centred drug dependence treatment where the MOPH will be expected to develop guidelines, operating standards and monitoring and evaluation indicators to assess performance. Although Thailand’s drug treatment system has raised significant concerns over the past 15 years, this change is intended by the Government to indicate a shift in the overall approach to drug use and dependence to one based on health and human rights.
The aim of the report is to document participation efforts and outcomes across countries, and highlight differences and constraints identified to date. In this first GLASS report data vary considerably in terms of completeness, so no attempt was made to compare AMR status at a regional or global level. However, as GLASS and country participation evolves, the data reported will help understand surveillance capacities and mechanisms of reporting across countries in all regions, and will inform further GLASS development.
AVAC's 2018 annual state of the field report, No Prevention, No End! looks at today's prevention crisis and offers context, analysis and strategy to turn that crisis around.
Keywords: HIV, PrEP, treatment, vaccine, prevention
This handbook has been written by a group of patients in British Columbia. We all have long experience with medication-assisted treatments for opioid dependence. The language about drug use is complex. The latest version of the manual that defines diseases and disorders (DSM-V) no longer refers to “dependence” and uses “addiction” instead. In this handbook, we continue to use “dependence” to refer to our experience of “needing the drug” and significant withdrawal symptoms when trying to quit or cut down on our use. Deciding to seek help is an important step in any process of recovery. You are making a wise decision to seek help now. People dependent on opioid drugs and not receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST) are many times more likely to die or be seriously harmed by problem drug use.
This document provides key considerations on when clinically stable children, adolescents and women who are pregnant or breastfeeding as well as members of key populations (people who inject drugs, sex workers, men who have sex with men, transgender people and people living in prisons and closed settings) can benefit from access to ART services for clinically stable clients, including less frequent clinic visits and multi-month refills for ART and other medications. The guidance provides the rationale and the approach to expand differentiated ART delivery to populations of people living with HIV who previously may not have been considered “eligible” for ART delivery models for clinically stable clients.
Keywords: HIV, ART, treatment, health care
Viral hepatitis now ranks as the seventh leading cause of mortality worldwide. Although mortality due to communicable diseases has declined globally, the absolute burden and relative ranking of viral hepatitis as a cause of mortality has increased between 1990 and 2013.
Viral hepatitis causes at least as many, if not more, deaths annually compared with TB, AIDS, or malaria. Mortality due to viral hepatitis is increasing with time, while that due to TB, HIV and malaria is declining. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections account for more than 90% of viral hepatitis-related deaths and disability, with hepatitis A and E being responsible for the remaining.