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The World Health Organization was requested by Member States to develop a global priority pathogens list (global PPL) of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to help in prioritizing the research and development (R&D) of new and effective antibiotic treatments. To date, the selection of pathogens for R&D activities has been largely guided by small and large pharmaceutical companies according to a variety of parameters, such as perceived/unmet medical need, pressure of investors, market size, scientific discovery potential, and availability of specific technologies. Previous PPLs, issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
In this Region, most mothers and children receive health services during pregnancy, delivery and in the months after birth. However, when services for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis are planned and delivered through separate, uncoordinated, vertical programmes in the health system.
Saving lives, preventing new HIV infections, preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV, post-exposure prophylaxis for averting HIV infection, restoring respect and dignity to people living with HIV, pre-exposure prophylaxis for people at higher risk, preventing TB, TB-related deaths and TB transmission, restoring employment, reducing the number of children becoming orphans, and reducing maternal mortality.
This WHO Global hepatitis report describes, for the first time, the global and regional estimates on viral hepatitis in 2015, setting the baseline for tracking progress in implementing the new global strategy.
The report focuses on hepatitis B and C, which are responsible for 96% of all hepatitis mortality. It presents data along the five strategic directions (strategic information, interventions, equity, financing and innovation) – key pillars of the GHSS to facilitate monitoring of progress in countries, regions and globally, and to measure the impact of interventions on reducing new infections and saving lives between 2015 and 2030.
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Competition law is an important policy tool that LMICs can use to protect consumer welfare and promote industrial and economic development. It aims to restrict unfair business practices, and promote quicker introduction and increased availability of health technologies. The issue brief highlights key aspects of using competition law to promote access to health technologies from UNDP’s landmark publication “Using Competition Law to Promote Access to Health Technologies: A guidebook for low- and middle-income countries.” The issue brief intends to be a resource for policymakers, national competition authorities, national procurement agencies, health authorities, civil society and other actors who have an interest in understanding the critical role of competition authorities in promoting access to health technologies.
Keywords: HIV, TB, LMICs, access, medicines, laws
This book represents the consolidated knowledge and experience related to the policies and management of universal access to ART in Thailand. It aims to serve as an important tool to share knowledge with and advocate the policy of universal health coverage (UHC) to policymakers in the other developing nations that are working towards achieving UHC inclusive of the continuum of HIV and AIDS care services
Keywords: Thailand, HIV, PLHIV, ART, treatment, health system
Viral hepatitis now ranks as the seventh leading cause of mortality worldwide. Although mortality due to communicable diseases has declined globally, the absolute burden and relative ranking of viral hepatitis as a cause of mortality has increased between 1990 and 2013.
Viral hepatitis causes at least as many, if not more, deaths annually compared with TB, AIDS, or malaria. Mortality due to viral hepatitis is increasing with time, while that due to TB, HIV and malaria is declining. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections account for more than 90% of viral hepatitis-related deaths and disability, with hepatitis A and E being responsible for the remaining.
This report highlights the key results achieved over Phase II of the MHTF, from 2014 to 2016, structured around the three cross-cutting principles of accountability, equality of access and quality of care, as outlined in the MHTF Business Plan Phase II (2014-2017). The report foregrounds the MHTF’s role in supporting health systems strengthening, and addresses its catalytic nature, its promotion of sustainability and its strong emphasis on advancing innovation.
WHO has recommended adopting drug regimens with high potency, lower toxicity, high genetic barriers to resistance, usefulness across different populations and lower cost. The use of optimized drug regimens can improve the durability of the treatment and quality of care of people living with HIV.
Adopting optimized antiretroviral (ARV) drug regimens can significantly affect the speed at which the 90 –90 –90 targets are achieved, enhancing access to treatment and improving treatment outcomes with impact on treatment adherence, viral suppression and the quality of life of people living with HIV, reducing pressures on health systems and the risk of HIV transmission.
Monitoring of individuals on ART is important to ensure treatment efficacy and improved health outcomes.
The 2016 WHO Consolidated Guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection include recommendations on routine monitoring and the diagnosis of treatment failure.
Keywords: HIV, ART, CD4, treatment, testing, monitoring