Policy Brief: Antiretroviral Therapy and Injecting Drug Users. WHO, UNODC and UNAIDS. (2005)

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This policy brief reviews the evidence to date on providing antiretroviral (ARV) therapy to HIV-positive injecting drug users. A number of related medical, psychological and social issues are also addressed including the need to manage drug interactions and the benefi t of harm reduction interventions in supporting optimum care for HIV-positive injecting drug users.

 

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, IDU, ARV, treatment, prison

 

 

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Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Positive Adults and Adolescents in Pakistan. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan (2005)

Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Positive Adults and Adolescents in Pakistan. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan (2005) Successful treatment of HIV/AIDS depends on strict adherence by HIV positive patients in taking their medications as instructed and for health care providers to recommend antiretroviral treatment (ART) based on rigorous scientific evidence. The devastating consequences of incorrect or partial HIV treatment are premature death, increased morbidity, development of drug resistant HIV strains, and lack of further treatment options.

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Progress on Global Access to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy. UNAIDS and WHO (2005)

Progress on Global Access to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy. UNAIDS and WHO (2005) Since late 2003, when WHO and UNAIDS launched a strategy for ensuring treatment for 3 million people living with HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries by the end of 2005 (the “3 by 5” target), coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in these countries has more than doubled – increasing from 400 000 to approximately 1 million people receiving treatment at the end of June 2005. To date, 14 of these countries are providing ART to at least 50 per cent of those who need it, consistent with the “3 by 5” target.

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China: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. WHO (2005)

China: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. WHO (2005) China has a low overall HIV prevalence but high prevalence in certain population groups and at some sites. WHO/UNAIDS estimated that 840 000 people in 0–49 years old were living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2004, and the estimated HIV prevalence was 0.07% (with a low estimate of 0.05% and a high estimate of 0.08%). There are geographical differences in prevalence levels within subpopulations. Since 2001, reported HIV/AIDS cases have increased at a 30% annual rate, most likely as a result of increased surveillance. HIV is reported from 31 of China’s 34 provinces and other administrative units on mainland China.

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Myanmar: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale up. WHO (2005)

Myanmar: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale up. WHO (2005) With national estimated prevalence of between 0.6% and 2.2%, Myanmar is experiencing a generalized epidemic, considered one of the most serious in Asia. The Ministry of Health estimates that 338 911 adults aged 15–49 years old were living with HIV/AIDS in September 2004, of which 96 834 (28.6%) were women, indicating a total adult prevalence rate of 1.3%. HIV infection rates vary across the country, with several regions showing considerable increases in prevalence rates among less vulnerable populations. According to the Ministry of Health, in 2003, 12 of 29 sentinel sites for pregnant women showed a prevalence of HIV infection exceeding 2%. At Pyay and Hpa-an, prevalence rates among pregnant women were as high as 5% and 7.5% respectively.

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India: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. WHO (2005)

India: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. WHO (2005) India’s population surpassed 1 billion in 2001; 67% live in rural areas and 33% in urban areas. India is estimated to have the second largest population of people living with HIV/AIDS, next to South Africa. An estimated 5.13 million individuals currently live with HIV across all states in India. In areas that are more severely affected, the epidemic has started to challenge recent development achievements and to raise fundamental issues of human rights concerning people living with HIV/AIDS.


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Papua New Guinea: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale Up. WHO (2005)

Papua New Guinea: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale Up. WHO (2005) The first case of HIV infection in Papua New Guinea was detected in 1987. By June 2005, 12 341 people had been reported to be living with HIV/AIDS. The country is facing a generalized epidemic with rapidly increasing prevalence in a difficult socioeconomic context. A national epidemiological consensus meeting in November 2004 estimated an average prevalence rate of 1.7%, and between 25 000 and 69 000 people with 15-49 years were living with HIV/AIDS. Prevalence rates among women attending antenatal care services are estimated to vary between 1% and 4%. Available data suggests that the epidemic is predominantly transmitted through heterosexual contact (84%), fuelled by high-risk behaviour including widespread commercial and casual sex. Approximately 93.1% of current reported cases are adults.

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Vietnam: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. WHO (2005)

Vietnam: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. WHO (2005) Viet Nam is facing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic that is beginning to extend beyond initial concentrations in networks of injecting drug users and sex workers. The number of people living with HIV doubled between 2000 and 2005, from approximately 122 000 to 263 000. The adult HIV prevalence is estimated to be 0.5% at the national level in 2005 but exceeded 1% in several provinces. There were an estimated 37 000 new infections in 2005. Due to increased heterosexual transmission, the number of infected females compared with males is increasing each year. In 2005, the ratio was estimated to be 2 to 1, males to females. The number of AIDS-related deaths is growing and is estimated to have increased from 9000 in 2003 to 14 000 in 2005.

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Scaling Up Anti-Retroviral Treatment to (Injecting) Drug Users in Asia. Asian Harm Reduction Network (2005)

Scaling Up Anti-Retroviral Treatment to (Injecting) Drug Users in Asia. Asian Harm Reduction Network (2005) In light of the endorsement of the AIDS Care Watch Campaign, led by Health and Development Networks (HDN), the Asian Harm Reduction Network (AHRN) believes that addressing issues related to injecting drug use (IDU) and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) is essential in the Asian context. Notably, AHRN believes that the provision of ART for IDUs is a fairly recent area which has not received due attention and deserves more research and consideration.

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Indonesia: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale up. WHO (2005)

Indonesia: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale up. WHO (2005) The epidemic in Indonesia is concentrated, with low infection rates in the general population and high rates among certain populations, mainly injecting drug users and sex workers in some regions. Transmission among injecting drug users has increased eight-fold since 1998, and rates are as high as 70% among injecting drug users in Jakarta in 2005 (according to Kios Atmajaya, a nongovernmental organization) and 53% in Denpasar (Bali) and 26% among sex workers in one brothel in Papua.

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