Cambodia Cares: Implementing a Continuum of Care for PLHA, Including ART in Moung Russey, Cambodia. National Centre for HIV/AIDS Dermatology and STD Cambodia, FHI and USAID (2004)

Cambodia Cares: Implementing a Continuum of Care for PLHA, Including ART in Moung Russey, Cambodia. National Centre for HIV/AIDS Dermatology and STD Cambodia, FHI and USAID (2004) Mr. Nun (a pseudonym) is one of many Cambodians who suffer from AIDS. What is unique about Mr. Nun is that his physical condition is better now than it was last year and that his improvement happened after receiving HIV care and treatment from a local hospital. Mr. Nun is the beneficiary of a new collaborative initiative in Moung Russey Operational District (OD) between the district health services, the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STD (NCHADS), communities, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), and international and local non-government organizations.

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Report of the Paediatric HIV Consultation. UNICEF (2004)

Report of the Paediatric HIV Consultation. UNICEF (2004) On October 20, 2004, 29 representatives from three countries and more than a dozen international and supranational organizations and hospitals attended the Consultation on Accelerating Support for Paediatric HIV Care, Support and Treatment in Thailand and Neighboring Countries within the Context of the 3 x 5 Initiative.

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Mapping HIV Vulnerability along Kampong Thom, Siem Reap, Odor Meanchey and Preah Vihear, Cambodia. UNDP (2004)

Mapping HIV Vulnerability along Kampong Thom, Siem Reap, Odor Meanchey and Preah Vihear, Cambodia. UNDP (2004) The poor state of Cambodia’s infrastructure has posed a major obstacle to development and poverty reduction efforts. The Cambodian government has recognized this challenge and made infrastructure, especially road rehabilitation, one of its top priorities. The “Provincial and Rural Infrastructure Project (PRIP)”, 2003-2005, was jointly developed by the Cambodian Ministry of Public Work and Transport (MPWT), the Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) and the World Bank (WB). As part of this project, parts of Route six, which run through the four provinces of Kampong Thom, Siem Reap, Preah Vihear and Odor Meanchey, have been targeted for rehabilitation. Although this project is expected to reduce poverty, negative side effects are also expected, such as the increase in HIV vulnerability of roadside communities. It is therefore essential to identify populations that are most vulnerable to HIV infection, and develop ways to build their HIV resilience.

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UNICEF/WHO Technical Consultation: Improving Access to Appropriate Paediatric ARV Formulations. UNICEF and WHO (2004)

UNICEF/WHO Technical Consultation: Improving Access to Appropriate Paediatric ARV Formulations. UNICEF and WHO (2004) In 2003, more than 5 million people were newly infected with HIV – as many as 700,000 (13%) of them were children. Six hundred and thirty thousand (95%) of these new infections were caused through mother-to-child transmission, and 90% of the infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS case reporting is unreliable, however it is estimated that 500,000 children are currently in need of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) world wide. In 2003 some 490,000 child deaths under age 14 were due to AIDS, and an estimated 17% of all AIDS deaths were among children. There are 7 countries where AIDS accounts for more than 10% of the under five mortality.

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WHO Country Cooperation Strategy Bhutan. Singhadej O, Wangchuk N, Yoosuf S, et al (2003)

WHO Country Cooperation Strategy Bhutan. Singhadej O, Wangchuk N, Yoosuf S, et al (2003) This WHO Country Cooperation Strategy (CCS) outlines the strategic framework for the WHO's work in Bhutan for the period end 2002 - end 2007.

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HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment: A Clinical Course for People Caring for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS. FHI-Impact and USAID (2003)

HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment: A Clinical Course for People Caring for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS. FHI, Impact and USAID (2003) Only about five percent of the 30 million people in poor countries who need treatment for HIV infec- tion are receiving it. As the need for treatment grows, so does the demand. The June 2001 Declaration of Commitment by the United Nations General Assembly states that “Prevention, care, support and treatment for those infected and affected by HIV/AIDS are mutually reinforcing elements of an effective response and must be integrated in a comprehensive approach to combat the epidemic.” Encouraged by global support for expanding access to treatment and by a decrease in the price of antiretroviral drugs, programs are increasingly seeking ways to add a treatment component to their prevention, care, and support services.

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Improving Access to Anti-Retroviral Treatment in Cambodia. Alliance and Khmer HIV/AIDS NGO Alliance (2003)

Improving Access to Anti-Retroviral Treatment in Cambodia. Alliance and Khmer HIV/AIDS NGO Alliance (2003) Cambodia is often cited as an example of how an effective multi-sectoral response to HIV, with strong political commitment and effective co-operation between government, non- governmental organisations (NGOs), and international organisations, can impact on the spread of infection. Cambodia has an HIV/AIDS prevalence of 2.6% in the adult population (15-49 years). Government data indicates that HIV prevalence rates in some of the populations under surveillance appear to be declining. However, the current data indicates that HIV/AIDS is not uniformly distributed throughout the country and numbers of cases of AIDS and AIDS-related deaths continue to increase.

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National Guideline for the Use of ART in Adults and Adolescents. National Centre for HIV/AIDS Dermatology and STD Cambodia (2003)

National Guideline for the Use of ART in Adults and Adolescents. National Centre for HIV/AIDS Dermatology and STD Cambodia (2003) The escalating HIV epidemic in Cambodia is now producing an expanding need for HIV/AIDS care, as people progress to advanced and symptomatic HIV disease. This need for HIV/AIDS care and support will increase considerably over the next decade, as each year approximately 20 000 people will develop AIDS and die unless expanded interventions are available. The limited resources of the Cambodian health care system will be further stretched due to this impact of HIV/AIDS on care needs. The presence of such a large number of HIV infections in the population creates an inescapable increase in demand for health care.

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A Public Health Approach to Antiretroviral Treatment: Overcoming Constraints. WHO (2003)

A Public Health Approach to Antiretroviral Treatment: Overcoming Constraints. WHO (2003) A growing, global movement of people living with HIV/AIDS and their advocates, civil society organizations, health professionals, philanthropic foundations, international agencies, governments and private corporations is now working to reverse this injustice. The efforts of this move- ment have helped to shape a global consensus that allowing millions of deaths from a treatable disease is intolerable and that prevention strategies alone are insufficient to contain the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Treatment and care are therefore the crucial, missing link in the global response because, by alleviating suffering, reducing stigma and mitigating the economic and social impact of disease, they can reinforce the fight against HIV/AIDS.

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Expanding Access to HIV/AIDS Treatment: Mission Report India. WHO (2003)

Expanding Access to HIV/AIDS Treatment: Mission Report India. WHO (2003) This report was prepared by a WHO team comprising members from WHO headquarters, the Regional Office for South-East Asia (SEARO), and the WHO Representative's Office (WRO) in collaboration with representatives from UNICEF and UNAIDS. The mission consulted development partners, stakeholders, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society representatives. The dialogue on behalf of the Government of India was led by Mr JVR Prasada Rao, Secretary, Department of Health, and Mrs Meenakshi Datta Ghosh, Additional Secretary and Project Director, National AIDS Control Organization (NACO). The mission consulted Mr Ajay Seth, Director, Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance. The mission is grateful to the officials, partners and colleagues (see Annex 1) who participated or provided support and advice. The programme of the mission is at Annex 2. The WHO team would like to thank the Government of India for its assistance and gracious hospitality.

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