The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: Implications for Access to Medicines and Public Health. Bhardwaj K and Oh C. (2014)

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The objective of this report is to provide an analysis of the provisions in the proposed TPPA in order to obtain a clearer understanding of their implications. It is hoped that the report will also be a useful resource for other stakeholders in the public health field.

The report analyses the key negotiating issues in the USA’s proposals (widely considered to be the basic negotiation text for the TPPA) which are likely to have an impact on access to medicines and public health.


Keywords: HIV, health, access, medicines, financing, 

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Joint WHO/UNAIDS Annual Consultation with Pharmaceutical Companies and Stakeholders on Forecasting Global Demand of Antiretroviral Drugs for 2013-2016. WHO. (2014)

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The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Secretariat jointly organized an annual two-day consultation with pharmaceutical companies and stakeholders to present them with the draft forecasts for the demand of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in 2013–2016.

 

Keywords: Anti-Retroviral agents, supply and distribution, HIV infections, therapy, drug industry

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Dual Elimination of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV and Congenital Syphilis. UNITAID. (2014)

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There are more than one hundred HIV rapid tests commercially available today, all of which can be used for screening pregnant women for the virus. These tests, which are generally antibody tests, have been widely adopted, especially in resource-limited settings, where they can be used in decentralized facilities, including prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) centres, to provide same-day results to patients. In general, the technical performance of these HIV rapid tests, as reported by manufacturers, is strong. Sensitivities usually range from 99.3% to 100% and specificities range from 99.7% to 99.9%.


Keywords: HIV, syphilis, PMTCT, children, pregnant women, prevention

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Antiretroviral Medicines in Low- and Middle-income Countries: Forecasts of Global and Regional Demand for 2013-2016. WHO. (2014)

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The global effort to scale-up HIV treatment in low- and middle-income countries continues to move closer towards achieving the goal of 15 million people receiving treatment by 2015. By the end of 2012, 9.7 million people in low- and middle-income countries were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), which represents an increase of 1.7 million from the previous year.

The goal of this report is to provide countries and suppliers with a sense of how the global market for antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in low- and middle-income countries is likely to evolve from 2013 to 2016. The report also aims to provide suppliers with a global forecast of the estimated demand for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) so that they can manage their manufacturing capacity accordingly.


Keywords: HIV, ARV, infections, therapy, drug, adults, children

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March 2014 Supplement to the 2013 Consolidated Guidelines on the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV Infection. WHO. (2014)

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WHO guidelines on the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection provide a public health approach for scaling up HIV care and treatment programmes and focus on simplified, harmonized and effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens for use in resource-limited settings. In 2013, for the first time, WHO revised and combined guidelines for adults and adolescents, infants and children and pregnant women as well as other ARV-related guidance documents into one set of consolidated guidelines that addressed the use of ARV drugs for HIV treatment and prevention across all age groups and populations, based on the broad continuum of HIV care.

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UNITAID’s Key Performance Indicators 2013 - Transforming Markets Adding Value. UNITAID. (2014)

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UNITAID was launched in 2006 at the United Nations General Assembly by the governments of Brazil, Chile, France, Norway and the United Kingdom to improve access to vital medicines, tests and prevention products for people living with HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria in low income countries. Its pioneering investments, financed significantly by an air ticket levy, have shaped the markets for paediatric and second line medicines for HIV/AIDS, new diagnostic tools to detect TB and the provision of ACTs to private sector outlets where up to 60% of people seek treatment for malaria in high burden countries. Reflecting on these accomplishments and looking to address gaps in the availability and affordability of life-saving products for the three diseases, UNITAID produced a new strategy for 2013-2016.

 

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria, medicines, diagnostics, paediatric, treatment

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Assessing the Impact of Alternative Patent Systems on the Cost of Health Care: The TPPA and HIV Treatment in Vietnam. Moir H V J, Tenni B, Gleeson D and Lopert R. (2014)

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In the Trans Pacific partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations, the United States has proposed expanded patent protections that will likely impact the affordability of medicines in TPPA partners. This includes antiretroviral (ARV) medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Vietnam has the lowest GDP per capita of the 12 countries participating in the TPPA negotiations. Using the current Vietnamese patent regime as our base case, we analyse the potential impact of alternative patent regimes on access to ARVs in Vietnam. The two other scenarios investigated are a patent regime making full use of TRIPS flexibilities, and a regime based on the US proposals in the 2014 leaked draft of the TPPA intellectual property chapter. Using World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines, we identified the most commonly used chemical entities and combinations used in the treatment of HIV. We examined patent data sets to discover patents that had been registered for these medicines and used information from examination of these patents to identify which might be granted under alternative patent regimes. We then drew on the empirical literature to estimate prices under the three patent scenarios. The current ARV budget was used as a constraint, with the consequence that the results focus on the impact of alternative patent regimes on access to treatment. Our results indicate 82% of the HIV population eligible for treatment would receive ARVs under a full TRIPS flexibility scenario, while only 30% of Vietnam's eligible HIV patients would have access to ARVs under the US 2014 TPPA proposals – more than halving the proportion treated compared to the current 68% receiving treatment. Similar price impacts can be expected for other countries participating in the TPPA, though these are less economically vulnerable than Vietnam.

 


Keywords: TPPA, patent policy, trade policy, access to medicines, Vietnam

 

 

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Annual Report 2013. UNITAID. (2014)

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UNITAID’s Strategy 2013-2016 guides the organization’s response to HIV/AIDS, malaria and TB. In total, these global epidemics kill almost 4 million people every year. Forward looking and flexible, UNITAID collects intelligence on product markets for these diseases in order to inform its investments, which are implemented by the world’s top development organizations.

 

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria, medicines, diagnostics, prevention

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UNITAID Strategy 2013-2016. UNITAID. (2013)

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The purpose of UNITAID is to contribute to the achievement of global long-term goals for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria through its interventions in product markets. These goals have determined the Strategic Objectives described in this Strategy for the coming four years and are shared by the international community at large.

 

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria, medicines, funding, diagnostics, prevention

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Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage. WHO. (2014)

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Universal health coverage (UHC) is at the center of current efforts to strengthen health systems and improve the level and distribution of health and health services. This document is the final report of the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage. The report addresses the key issues of fairness and equity that arise on the path to UHC. As such, the report is relevant for every actor that affects that path and governments in particular, as they are in charge of overseeing and guiding the progress toward UHC.

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