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This policy brief provides an overview of key findings, data and figures of the new consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations. In addition, it offers an overview of the comprehensive package on interventions and a table summarizing WHO recommendations concerning key populations.
Keywords: HIV, men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), sex workers, transgender, testing, treatment
Like delamanid, PA-824 belongs to the nitroimidazoles class of compounds and is a derivative of compound CGI-17341 whose anti-TB activity was reported as early as 1993.3 PA-824 was discovered by Patho- Genesis Corporation, which was subsequently acquired by Chiron Corporation. Novartis AG acquired Chiron Corporation in 2006.
PA-824 is a pro-drug, which requires reductive activation of an aromatic nitro group before it becomes effective against TB bacteria.4 Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that PA-824 has potent bactericidal and sterilizing effects against DS-TB and MDR-TB. PA-824 has also been shown to be active against latent TB bacteria.
Keywords: TB, bacteria, orphan, drug, access
The report provides an overview of the patent landscape with respect to a select number of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in developing countries as of April 2014. The focus is primarily on those ARVs that are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as new ARVs that have either recently obtained regulatory approval or are in phase III clinical trials.
Part 1 provides a brief introduction to patents and licences and their effect on the market for ARVs. It introduces key concepts that will facilitate an understanding of the report. It also explains which data sources were used for the report and notes a number of disclaimers with regard to the information contained in the report. Part 2 is the core of the report. It outlines the patent status and licensing status of each ARV in the 81 developing countries for which data are available. For each ARV the report indicates whether that ARV is included in fixed-dose combinations for which there may be patents. General conclusions are drawn in light of the data. The key purpose is to provide an overview of the patent landscape for each ARV and, in particular, to show in which countries market competition for a given ARV is possible in view of existing patents and licences.
Keywords: HIV, treatment, medicines, ART, ARV
WHO, with support from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), developed the present tool on specifications and quantities for efficient procurement of essential equipment and laboratory commodities for HIV.
The ultimate purpose of the tool is to facilitate the efficient procurement of laboratory equipment and laboratory commodities required to:
- perform HIV diagnostic tests in adults, adolescent and children;
Keywords: HIV infections, diagnosis, anti-retroviral agents, treatment outcome, technology medical
SQ109 falls into the class of drugs known as ethylenediamines. The compound was discovered by Sequella Inc in collaboration with the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). A solid phase method was developed to synthesize more than 63 000 compounds based on the 1,2-ethylenediamine structure of ethambutol. Using a high-throughput screening assay, compounds were identified that affected genes activated during cell membrane repair by the TB bacilli.
This 17th edition of Untangling the Web of Antiretroviral Price Reductions is a departure from recent previous years. For this edition, the methods of collecting information on the sources and prices of antiretrovirals (ARVs) remain the same, but information is presented in a new, shorter format focusing on a few key drugs as well as future regimens, along with an analysis of the current opportunities, challenges and threats faced in keeping the price of ARVs down.
This policy brief provides advice on a phased approach to transitioning to new HIV treatment regimens, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The target audience includes implementing partners, antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme managers, procurement managers and other relevant parties. The ultimate purpose is to ensure a continuous supply of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, and ensure rapid and efficient implementation of the new WHO ARV guidelines, with smooth transitioning to new recommended ARV regimens, while reducing the wastage or expiry of products that are no longer recommended.
Keywords: HIV infection, pregnant, breastfeeding, treatment, medicines
Sutezolid belongs to the oxazolidinone class of compounds, which function as protein synthesis inhibitors and were first discovered in the mid-1980s.3 Linezolid was the first compound of the oxazolidinone class to be approved for treatment of TB. It is most commonly used to treat drug-resistant TB.4 However, linezolid’s use has been limited by toxicity concerns, particularly haematological effects after periods of treatment over 14 days.
Nationally representative surveillance of HIVDR in populations initiating a standard triple-drug ART combination is critical to inform the selection of effective first-line ART combinations, as well as adequate pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens. Detected HIVDR in populations initiating triple-drug ART regimens may have been transmitted at the time of initial infection or acquired due to previous exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs (in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes, PrEP, PEP or previous disclosed or undisclosed ART).
Keywords: HIV, drug resistance, infections, epidemiology, therapy, surveillance
The Guidelines aim to support countries provide more effective and comprehensive HIV services for the key populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people and include discussion of specific issues relating to adolescent key populations. Although, there is still a lack of evidence to support recommendation of PrEP to transgender women. In this brief we highlight the recommendations made in the Guidelines that are most relevant to MSM and transgender people.