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The study was conducted with objectives to explore the barriers to access and utilization of PMCT services by pregnant key populations and describe the factors of not accessing PMTCT services. Because of non-availability of pregnant key populations other than FSWs for participation in the study, the study exploration focused only on the FSWs. An exploratory qualitative research design was applied where Round Table Discussions with Key Informants and Individual Depth Interviews (IDIs) with FSWs. During IDIs, short quantitative questions were also posed to this non-random sample to be able to quantify some of the key variables of interest.
Keywords: prevention, condom, anti-retroviral therapy (ART), unwanted pregnancy
This policy brief provides an overview of key findings, data and figures of the new consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations. In addition, it offers an overview of the comprehensive package on interventions and a table summarizing WHO recommendations concerning key populations.
Keywords: HIV, men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), sex workers, transgender, testing, treatment
Like delamanid, PA-824 belongs to the nitroimidazoles class of compounds and is a derivative of compound CGI-17341 whose anti-TB activity was reported as early as 1993.3 PA-824 was discovered by Patho- Genesis Corporation, which was subsequently acquired by Chiron Corporation. Novartis AG acquired Chiron Corporation in 2006.
PA-824 is a pro-drug, which requires reductive activation of an aromatic nitro group before it becomes effective against TB bacteria.4 Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that PA-824 has potent bactericidal and sterilizing effects against DS-TB and MDR-TB. PA-824 has also been shown to be active against latent TB bacteria.
Keywords: TB, bacteria, orphan, drug, access
The paper provides information on the prices paid by 20 middle-income countries for adult and paediatric formulations of antiretroviral treatments recommended by WHO. It links this information with an analysis of the intellectual property situation of the selected medicines taking into account existing license agreements as well as compulsory licenses, and includes data and general information on a number of other determinants of prices and availability of ARVs, including tariffs, markups and taxes, as well as the regulatory status.
HIV Drug Resistance emerges when HIV replicates in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. If HIV drug resistance becomes widespread, the drugs currently used to treat HIV infection may become ineffective. To date, levels of HIV Drug Resistance in countries scaling up ART remain manageable. However, resistance is slowly increasing: in East Africa, resistance rates of 10% to non-nucleoside drugs (such as nevirapine and efavirenz) have been recently described.
To maximize the long-term effectiveness of first-line ART regimens, and ensure the sustainability of ART programmes, it is essential to minimize the further spread of HIV drug resistance. Even in settings with optimal ART programme management, some degree of HIVDR is expected to emerge in populations on ART and some HIVDR is expected to be transmitted to previously uninfected individuals. Therefore, WHO recommends that HIV treatment scale-up should always be accompanied by a robust assessment of drug resistance emergence and transmission.
WHO, with support from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), developed the present tool on specifications and quantities for efficient procurement of essential equipment and laboratory commodities for HIV.
The ultimate purpose of the tool is to facilitate the efficient procurement of laboratory equipment and laboratory commodities required to:
- perform HIV diagnostic tests in adults, adolescent and children;
Keywords: HIV infections, diagnosis, anti-retroviral agents, treatment outcome, technology medical
SQ109 falls into the class of drugs known as ethylenediamines. The compound was discovered by Sequella Inc in collaboration with the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). A solid phase method was developed to synthesize more than 63 000 compounds based on the 1,2-ethylenediamine structure of ethambutol. Using a high-throughput screening assay, compounds were identified that affected genes activated during cell membrane repair by the TB bacilli.
The report provides an overview of the patent landscape with respect to a select number of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in developing countries as of April 2014. The focus is primarily on those ARVs that are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as new ARVs that have either recently obtained regulatory approval or are in phase III clinical trials.
Part 1 provides a brief introduction to patents and licences and their effect on the market for ARVs. It introduces key concepts that will facilitate an understanding of the report. It also explains which data sources were used for the report and notes a number of disclaimers with regard to the information contained in the report. Part 2 is the core of the report. It outlines the patent status and licensing status of each ARV in the 81 developing countries for which data are available. For each ARV the report indicates whether that ARV is included in fixed-dose combinations for which there may be patents. General conclusions are drawn in light of the data. The key purpose is to provide an overview of the patent landscape for each ARV and, in particular, to show in which countries market competition for a given ARV is possible in view of existing patents and licences.
Keywords: HIV, treatment, medicines, ART, ARV
This policy brief provides advice on a phased approach to transitioning to new HIV treatment regimens, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The target audience includes implementing partners, antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme managers, procurement managers and other relevant parties. The ultimate purpose is to ensure a continuous supply of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, and ensure rapid and efficient implementation of the new WHO ARV guidelines, with smooth transitioning to new recommended ARV regimens, while reducing the wastage or expiry of products that are no longer recommended.
Keywords: HIV infection, pregnant, breastfeeding, treatment, medicines
Sutezolid belongs to the oxazolidinone class of compounds, which function as protein synthesis inhibitors and were first discovered in the mid-1980s.3 Linezolid was the first compound of the oxazolidinone class to be approved for treatment of TB. It is most commonly used to treat drug-resistant TB.4 However, linezolid’s use has been limited by toxicity concerns, particularly haematological effects after periods of treatment over 14 days.