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The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Secretariat jointly organized an annual two-day consultation with pharmaceutical companies and stakeholders to present them with the draft forecasts for the demand of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in 2013–2016.
Keywords: Anti-Retroviral agents, supply and distribution, HIV infections, therapy, drug industry
The report is intended to provide information primarily for public health policy-makers and managers, and for the wider medical and public health community (including pharmaceutical companies), as a support for informing strategic actions and programme planning. It will also be of interest to the other sectors that are directly involved, including veterinary drug and animal husbandry, agriculture and aquaculture.
HIV treatment is a unique tool in the AIDS response, preventing illness and death, averting new infections and saving money. As hopes for ending the AIDS epidemic depend in large measure on the world’s ability to provide HIV treatment to all who need it, in a rights-based approach, final targets for universal treatment access are critical.
Keywords: HIV, coverage, testing, antiretroviral therapy (ART), antiretroviral drugs (ARV), key populations, 90-90-90
Delamanid was discovered via a screening programme carried out by Otsuka. The compound belongs to the nitroimidazole class of compounds and is a derivative of compound CGI-17341 whose anti-TB activity was already reported in 1993.4 Indeed, various 5- and 2-nitroimidazoles and 5-nitrofurans were already known to be effective against a variety of protozoan and bacterial infections in humans and animals. For example, the published international patent application WO 97/01562 previously disclosed a 6-nitro- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro[2,1-b]-imidazopyran compound with bactericidal action in vitro to mycobacterium TB.
Keywords: HIV, TB, pediatric, testing, drugs, treatment
This 17th edition of Untangling the Web of Antiretroviral Price Reductions is a departure from recent previous years. For this edition, the methods of collecting information on the sources and prices of antiretrovirals (ARVs) remain the same, but information is presented in a new, shorter format focusing on a few key drugs as well as future regimens, along with an analysis of the current opportunities, challenges and threats faced in keeping the price of ARVs down.
The global effort to scale-up HIV treatment in low- and middle-income countries continues to move closer towards achieving the goal of 15 million people receiving treatment by 2015. By the end of 2012, 9.7 million people in low- and middle-income countries were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), which represents an increase of 1.7 million from the previous year.
The goal of this report is to provide countries and suppliers with a sense of how the global market for antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in low- and middle-income countries is likely to evolve from 2013 to 2016. The report also aims to provide suppliers with a global forecast of the estimated demand for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) so that they can manage their manufacturing capacity accordingly.
HCV has been described as a “dual epidemic” with HIV because it is highly prevalent in HIV-endemic areas and it disproportionately affects vulnerable populations that also have a high risk of developing HIV infection—especially in Asia and Eastern Europe.2 HIV/HCV co-infection has emerged as an urgent public health issue that is jeopardizing the progress made in addressing the HIV epidemic.
Keywords: hepatitis C, HCV, treatment, testing, prevention
This policy brief provides an overview of key findings, data and figures of the new consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations. In addition, it offers an overview of the comprehensive package on interventions and a table summarizing WHO recommendations concerning key populations.
Keywords: HIV, men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), sex workers, transgender, testing, treatment
Like delamanid, PA-824 belongs to the nitroimidazoles class of compounds and is a derivative of compound CGI-17341 whose anti-TB activity was reported as early as 1993.3 PA-824 was discovered by Patho- Genesis Corporation, which was subsequently acquired by Chiron Corporation. Novartis AG acquired Chiron Corporation in 2006.
PA-824 is a pro-drug, which requires reductive activation of an aromatic nitro group before it becomes effective against TB bacteria.4 Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that PA-824 has potent bactericidal and sterilizing effects against DS-TB and MDR-TB. PA-824 has also been shown to be active against latent TB bacteria.
Keywords: TB, bacteria, orphan, drug, access
In the Trans Pacific partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations, the United States has proposed expanded patent protections that will likely impact the affordability of medicines in TPPA partners. This includes antiretroviral (ARV) medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Vietnam has the lowest GDP per capita of the 12 countries participating in the TPPA negotiations. Using the current Vietnamese patent regime as our base case, we analyse the potential impact of alternative patent regimes on access to ARVs in Vietnam. The two other scenarios investigated are a patent regime making full use of TRIPS flexibilities, and a regime based on the US proposals in the 2014 leaked draft of the TPPA intellectual property chapter. Using World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines, we identified the most commonly used chemical entities and combinations used in the treatment of HIV. We examined patent data sets to discover patents that had been registered for these medicines and used information from examination of these patents to identify which might be granted under alternative patent regimes. We then drew on the empirical literature to estimate prices under the three patent scenarios. The current ARV budget was used as a constraint, with the consequence that the results focus on the impact of alternative patent regimes on access to treatment. Our results indicate 82% of the HIV population eligible for treatment would receive ARVs under a full TRIPS flexibility scenario, while only 30% of Vietnam's eligible HIV patients would have access to ARVs under the US 2014 TPPA proposals – more than halving the proportion treated compared to the current 68% receiving treatment. Similar price impacts can be expected for other countries participating in the TPPA, though these are less economically vulnerable than Vietnam.