Policy Brief: Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations. WHO (2014)

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This policy brief provides an overview of key findings, data and figures of the new consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations. In addition, it offers an overview of the comprehensive package on interventions and a table summarizing WHO recommendations concerning key populations.

 

Keywords: HIV, men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), sex workers, transgender, testing, treatment

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A Review of the PA-824 Patent Landscape: A Scoping Report. Amin T. (2014)

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Like delamanid, PA-824 belongs to the nitroimidazoles class of compounds and is a derivative of compound CGI-17341 whose anti-TB activity was reported as early as 1993.3 PA-824 was discovered by Patho- Genesis Corporation, which was subsequently acquired by Chiron Corporation. Novartis AG acquired Chiron Corporation in 2006.

PA-824 is a pro-drug, which requires reductive activation of an aromatic nitro group before it becomes effective against TB bacteria.4 Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that PA-824 has potent bactericidal and sterilizing effects against DS-TB and MDR-TB. PA-824 has also been shown to be active against latent TB bacteria.

 

Keywords: TB, bacteria, orphan, drug, access

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March 2014 Supplement to the 2013 Consolidated Guidelines on the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV Infection. WHO. (2014)

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WHO guidelines on the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection provide a public health approach for scaling up HIV care and treatment programmes and focus on simplified, harmonized and effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens for use in resource-limited settings. In 2013, for the first time, WHO revised and combined guidelines for adults and adolescents, infants and children and pregnant women as well as other ARV-related guidance documents into one set of consolidated guidelines that addressed the use of ARV drugs for HIV treatment and prevention across all age groups and populations, based on the broad continuum of HIV care.

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Specifications and Quantities for Efficient Procurement of Essential Equipment and Laboratory Commodities for HIV. WHO. (2014)

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WHO, with support from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), developed the present tool on specifications and quantities for efficient procurement of essential equipment and laboratory commodities for HIV.

The ultimate purpose of the tool is to facilitate the efficient procurement of laboratory equipment and laboratory commodities required to:

   - perform HIV diagnostic tests in adults, adolescent and children;
   - monitor treatment outcomes in patients on antiretroviral therapy.

Keywords: HIV infections, diagnosis, anti-retroviral agents, treatment outcome, technology medical

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A Review of the SQ-109 Patent Landscape: A Scoping Report. Amin T. (2014)

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SQ109 falls into the class of drugs known as ethylenediamines. The compound was discovered by Sequella Inc in collaboration with the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). A solid phase method was developed to synthesize more than 63 000 compounds based on the 1,2-ethylenediamine structure of ethambutol. Using a high-throughput screening assay, compounds were identified that affected genes activated during cell membrane repair by the TB bacilli.


Keywords: HIV, TB, drugs, treatment, diagnosis, access

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Access to Antiretroviral Drugs in Low- and Middle-income Countries. WHO. (2014)

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This report has been compiled using country-level data reported to WHO on the procurement of ART via the Global Procurement Reporting Mechanism (GPRM), the WHO database on the regulatory status of ART, reports on the production capacity for the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) of ARVs, the annual WHO surveys on the use of ART, the Global AIDS Response Progress Report data, the Global Update on the Health Sector Response to HIV 2014, as well as contributions from countries and major stakeholders involved in ART access.

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Increasing Access to HIV Treatment in Middle-income Countries: Key Data on Prices, Regulatory Status, Tariffs and the Intellectual Property Situation. WHO. (2014)

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The paper provides information on the prices paid by 20 middle-income countries for adult and paediatric formulations of antiretroviral treatments recommended by WHO. It links this information with an analysis of the intellectual property situation of the selected medicines taking into account existing license agreements as well as compulsory licenses, and includes data and general information on a number of other determinants of prices and availability of ARVs, including tariffs, markups and taxes, as well as the regulatory status. 

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Surveillance of HIV Drug Resistance in Populations Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy (Pre-treatment HIV Drug Resistance). WHO. (2014)

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Nationally representative surveillance of HIVDR in populations initiating a standard triple-drug ART combination is critical to inform the selection of effective first-line ART combinations, as well as adequate pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens. Detected HIVDR in populations initiating triple-drug ART regimens may have been transmitted at the time of initial infection or acquired due to previous exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs (in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes, PrEP, PEP or previous disclosed or undisclosed ART).

 

Keywords: HIV, drug resistance, infections, epidemiology, therapy, surveillance

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Surveillance of HIV Drug Resistance in Populations Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy (Pre-treatment HIV Drug Resistance). WHO. (2014)

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Nationally representative surveillance of HIVDR in populations initiating a standard triple-drug ART combination is critical to inform the selection of effective first-line ART combinations, as well as adequate pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens. Detected HIVDR in populations initiating triple-drug ART regimens may have been transmitted at the time of initial infection or acquired due to previous exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs (in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes, PrEP, PEP or previous disclosed or undisclosed ART).

 

Keywords: HIV, drug resistance, infections, epidemiology, therapy, surveillance

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Policy Brief: Transition to New HIV Treatment Regimens - Procurement and Supply Chain Management Issues. WHO. (2014)

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This policy brief provides advice on a phased approach to transitioning to new HIV treatment regimens, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The target audience includes implementing partners, antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme managers, procurement managers and other relevant parties. The ultimate purpose is to ensure a continuous supply of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, and ensure rapid and efficient implementation of the new WHO ARV guidelines, with smooth transitioning to new recommended ARV regimens, while reducing the wastage or expiry of products that are no longer recommended. 

Keywords: HIV infection, pregnant, breastfeeding, treatment, medicines

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