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To reduce new HIV infections globally to fewer than 500 000 by 2020, a step towards ending the HIV epidemic as a public health threat by 2030, we need to Fast-Track the response, including renewed commitment to, sustained funding for and scaled-up implementation of HIV prevention programmes.
Keywords: HIV prevention, young women, partners, PrEP, male circumcision
Developed by Southern African AIDS Trust, with the support of WHO and UNAIDS, the summary of the the WHO’s New Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection is now available.
Among many new recommendations is that antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated in everyone living with HIV at any CD4 cell count. Another is that the use of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as a prevention choice for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination prevention approaches.
In support of the United Nation's Millennium Developtrieht Goal Number 6 to halt or reverse the incidence of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acqnired' Immune Deficiency Virus (AIDS) by 2015, PhilHealth through Board Resolution No. 1331, series of 2009 has approved the implementation of an outpatient HIV/AIDS treatment package. This benefit aims to increase the proportion of the population having·access to effective HIV/AIDS treatment and patient education measures.
All babies have the right to a healthy start in life.
Every year, approximately 1.5 million HIV-positive women give birth. If they are unable to access medicine and services, they run the risk of transmitting HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery and the breastfeeding period.
Now, with only one pill a day started during pregnancy, along with delivery in a medical facility by a skilled health professional and continued treatment through the breastfeeding period, advances in antenatal care mean that the risk of HIV transmission from mother to baby can be virtually eliminated.
In the Trans Pacific partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations, the United States has proposed expanded patent protections that will likely impact the affordability of medicines in TPPA partners. This includes antiretroviral (ARV) medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Vietnam has the lowest GDP per capita of the 12 countries participating in the TPPA negotiations. Using the current Vietnamese patent regime as our base case, we analyse the potential impact of alternative patent regimes on access to ARVs in Vietnam. The two other scenarios investigated are a patent regime making full use of TRIPS flexibilities, and a regime based on the US proposals in the 2014 leaked draft of the TPPA intellectual property chapter. Using World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines, we identified the most commonly used chemical entities and combinations used in the treatment of HIV. We examined patent data sets to discover patents that had been registered for these medicines and used information from examination of these patents to identify which might be granted under alternative patent regimes. We then drew on the empirical literature to estimate prices under the three patent scenarios. The current ARV budget was used as a constraint, with the consequence that the results focus on the impact of alternative patent regimes on access to treatment. Our results indicate 82% of the HIV population eligible for treatment would receive ARVs under a full TRIPS flexibility scenario, while only 30% of Vietnam's eligible HIV patients would have access to ARVs under the US 2014 TPPA proposals – more than halving the proportion treated compared to the current 68% receiving treatment. Similar price impacts can be expected for other countries participating in the TPPA, though these are less economically vulnerable than Vietnam.
This 17th edition of Untangling the Web of Antiretroviral Price Reductions is a departure from recent previous years. For this edition, the methods of collecting information on the sources and prices of antiretrovirals (ARVs) remain the same, but information is presented in a new, shorter format focusing on a few key drugs as well as future regimens, along with an analysis of the current opportunities, challenges and threats faced in keeping the price of ARVs down.
Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver disease caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV is found in blood and body fluids of carriers.
It has an incubation period of 6 weeks to 6 months. During the acute infection phase, most people do not have any symptoms. If symptoms occur, they may include yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), mild fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Approximately 5-10% of adults and 70%-90% of infants infected are unable to clear the virus, thus becoming chronic carriers. About a quarter of the chronic carriers might develop chronic liver damage including cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Nationally representative surveillance of HIVDR in populations initiating a standard triple-drug ART combination is critical to inform the selection of effective first-line ART combinations, as well as adequate pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens. Detected HIVDR in populations initiating triple-drug ART regimens may have been transmitted at the time of initial infection or acquired due to previous exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs (in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes, PrEP, PEP or previous disclosed or undisclosed ART).
Keywords: HIV, drug resistance, infections, epidemiology, therapy, surveillance
In Hong Kong, the estimated HCV prevalence in general population is around 0.3%.
In the last decade, there have been increasing overseas reports of acute HCV infections via sexual transmission in men who have sex with men (MSM), especially those who were HIV positive. Locally, the prevalence of HCV in the HIV infected MSM seen at the Department of Health (DH) was found to be 1.3% for the years 2000-2012, which is 4 times that of the general population. In addition, rising trend of the infection among local HIV infected MSM has been observed in recent years. In 2013, a case series of sexually transmitted HCV infections among HIV infected MSM was found by DH.
The report provides an overview of the patent landscape with respect to a select number of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in developing countries as of April 2014. The focus is primarily on those ARVs that are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as new ARVs that have either recently obtained regulatory approval or are in phase III clinical trials.
Part 1 provides a brief introduction to patents and licences and their effect on the market for ARVs. It introduces key concepts that will facilitate an understanding of the report. It also explains which data sources were used for the report and notes a number of disclaimers with regard to the information contained in the report. Part 2 is the core of the report. It outlines the patent status and licensing status of each ARV in the 81 developing countries for which data are available. For each ARV the report indicates whether that ARV is included in fixed-dose combinations for which there may be patents. General conclusions are drawn in light of the data. The key purpose is to provide an overview of the patent landscape for each ARV and, in particular, to show in which countries market competition for a given ARV is possible in view of existing patents and licences.
Keywords: HIV, treatment, medicines, ART, ARV