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MDR-TB is essentially a human-made problem that develops because of low-quality drugs and/or inadequate treatment regimens, and it is difficult and expensive to treat. The development of migrant-sensitive TB control policies is especially critical given the high mobility of migrants—which increases the likelihood of transmission and treatment default, their lack of access to health-care services, their often dire living conditions and their propensity to inadequately self-treat in the private sector. In formulating such policies, however, policy-makers should note that TB is primarily transmitted within migrant communities, with very limited evidence of transmission from migrant groups into host country populations.
Keywords: HIV, TB, health system, migrants, policy, legal
PEPFAR Technical Considerations for COP/ROP 2016 were released at the beginning of February 2016. Within the document PEPFAR reiterates its endorsement of the UNAIDS Fast-Track 90-90-90 targets for 2020 and highlights the importance of implementing collaborative TB/HIV activities as key to achieving these targets. It urges PEPFAR teams to ensure universal ART coverage (100%) for HIV-infected TB patients, through the support of integrated models of HIV/TB care to detect HIV-associated TB and provide ART in TB clinics. It further points out that viral suppression is only achievable if people living with HIV are alive, on ART, and virally suppressed. If PLHIV become ill and die of TB, the question of viral suppression becomes irrelevant. Furthermore, TB is known to worsen HIV progression and thereby leads to higher viral load. Hence the scale-up of TB screening and TB case-finding, IPT and TB infection control are key to contributing to long-term viral suppression for PLHIV on ART.
Keywords: HIV, adolescent, girls, young women, children, pregnant, breastfeeding, testing, human rights
Objective of Gender Assessment: The gender assessment was planned to identify gaps in TB and HIV services, which will be shared with relevant stakeholders for further policy level integration into overall health framework and vision. This will assist both programs to assess HIV and TB care context and response from a gender perspective, and help in shaping response from gender lens to reduce the dual burden of HIV and TB infection.
While TB is commonest opportunistic infection (OI) in HIV-infected individuals, HIV infection is an important risk factor for acquiring TB infection and its progression to active TB. HIV/TB together is a fatal combination with extremely high death rates (15 to 18%) reported among HIV-infected TB cases notified under Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP). Overall, TB is estimated to cause about 25% of all deaths among PLHIV in India.
This report presents analysis of the status of progress on MDGs until 2013/2014. Remarkable gains have also been made in the fight against Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. SAARC region has achieved MDG in all three indicators of Tuberculosis, of which some of the countries were in off track and some of in the line of on track.
2016 marks the beginning of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) era. Ending the global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic is the goal of the World Health Organization’s End TB Strategy, and it is a SDG target for 2030.Ending TB is a development challenge and opportunity. It is about tackling poverty and inequity. Ministries of Health cannot do it alone. Ending TB and achieving the SDGs requires intensified action across government ministries, communities, the private sector and civil society. It will take health and socioeconomic interventions, along with research and innovation. Progress across the SDGs will be essential.
Keywords: TB, prevention, treatment, co-epidemics
There is an urgent need for safer, simpler, more efficacious and accessible treatment regimens for all forms of TB. The development of Target Product Profiles for TB treatment regimens (referred to as Target Regimen Profiles or TRPs) seeks to guide the drug development process towards important regimen characteristics corresponding to the needs of end-users. The proposed TRPs have been developed in a multi-stakeholder process led by the Global TB Programme and the WHO Task Force on New TB Drug Policy Development, with the collaboration of the Johns Hopkins University and the participation of a large array of stakeholders. This work was supported by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
WHO has published a global TB report every year since 1997. The main aim of the report is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic, and of progress in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease at global, regional and country levels. This is done in the context of recommended global TB strategies and targets endorsed by WHO’s Member States and broader development goals set by the United Nations.
About one-third of the world's population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not (yet) ill with the disease and cannot transmit the disease.
People infected with TB bacteria have a 10% lifetime risk of falling ill with TB. However, persons with compromised immune systems, such as people living with HIV, malnutrition or diabetes, or people who use tobacco, have a much higher risk of falling ill.
Keywords: HIV, TB, diagnosis, treatment, prevention
For 2010–2016 implementation of the PhilPACT, the strategic thrust will be to (a) find the missing TB cases through expansion of diagnostic facilities and use of rapid diagnostic tests, full engagement of the private providers and hospitals and adoption of intensified case finding especially for the vulnerable populations; (b) expand PMDT facilities to improve access, hence, detect and treat more MDR-TB cases; (c) enhance services for the vulnerable populations who have higher risk of developing TB such as those with TB-HIV coinfection, the poor and children; (d) improve the human resource, logistical and information systems, and (e) strengthen the managerial capacity of all program managers.