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This is the thirteenth Report on Tuberculosis (TB) situation of SAARC Region which is being published by SAARC Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Centre (STAC) in a series that started in 2003, which includes a compilation of regional and country-specific achievements, challenges and plans. However the name of the report has changed “SAARC Epidemiological Response on Tuberculosis” from year 2014. The main purpose of the report is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic and progress made in TB care and control at Global, SAARC Region and Member States level.
Keywords: TB/HIV Co-infection, drug-resistant, treatment
Delamanid was discovered via a screening programme carried out by Otsuka. The compound belongs to the nitroimidazole class of compounds and is a derivative of compound CGI-17341 whose anti-TB activity was already reported in 1993.4 Indeed, various 5- and 2-nitroimidazoles and 5-nitrofurans were already known to be effective against a variety of protozoan and bacterial infections in humans and animals. For example, the published international patent application WO 97/01562 previously disclosed a 6-nitro- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro[2,1-b]-imidazopyran compound with bactericidal action in vitro to mycobacterium TB.
Keywords: HIV, TB, pediatric, testing, drugs, treatment
Like delamanid, PA-824 belongs to the nitroimidazoles class of compounds and is a derivative of compound CGI-17341 whose anti-TB activity was reported as early as 1993.3 PA-824 was discovered by Patho- Genesis Corporation, which was subsequently acquired by Chiron Corporation. Novartis AG acquired Chiron Corporation in 2006.
PA-824 is a pro-drug, which requires reductive activation of an aromatic nitro group before it becomes effective against TB bacteria.4 Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that PA-824 has potent bactericidal and sterilizing effects against DS-TB and MDR-TB. PA-824 has also been shown to be active against latent TB bacteria.
Keywords: TB, bacteria, orphan, drug, access
Anchored on the learning and insights from current TB-HIV initiatives in the country and the 2012 World Health Organization 12-point Agenda for TB-HIV Collaboration, 5th AIDS Medium Term Plan and 2010-2016 Philippine Plan for Action to Control Tuberculosis, new protocols have been adopted and concomitant changes to policies and guidelines are imminent for scale-up and full implementation. This AO is therefore, being released.
SQ109 falls into the class of drugs known as ethylenediamines. The compound was discovered by Sequella Inc in collaboration with the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). A solid phase method was developed to synthesize more than 63 000 compounds based on the 1,2-ethylenediamine structure of ethambutol. Using a high-throughput screening assay, compounds were identified that affected genes activated during cell membrane repair by the TB bacilli.
Sutezolid belongs to the oxazolidinone class of compounds, which function as protein synthesis inhibitors and were first discovered in the mid-1980s.3 Linezolid was the first compound of the oxazolidinone class to be approved for treatment of TB. It is most commonly used to treat drug-resistant TB.4 However, linezolid’s use has been limited by toxicity concerns, particularly haematological effects after periods of treatment over 14 days.
This policy is intended for programme managers under the TB and HIV programme, the Divisional HIV and TB teams, private practitioners, and stakeholders who work in the area of TB or HIV prevention, treatment and care inclusive of the Positive network for HIV in Fiji which is known as the Fiji Network for Positive People.
Keywords: TB, patients, testing and counseling, co-infected, treatment, PLHIV
The handbook aims to help a broad target audience, including national TB programme (NTP) managers, monitoring and evaluation officers, researchers including epidemiologists and statisticians, and staff working with technical, financial and development agencies.
A new report on Tuberculosis (TB) released on 22 October by the World Health Organization shows that 9 million people developed TB in 2013, and 1.5 million died, including 360 000 people who were living with HIV.
The Global Tuberculosis Report 2014 highlights that while the number of TB deaths among people living with HIV has been falling for almost a decade—from 540 000 in 2004 to 360 000 in 2013—early case detection, antiretroviral treatment, preventive therapy and other key activities need to be further scaled-up.
Keywords: HIV, tuberculosis (TB), financing, women, children, deaths
Tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance surveillance has been a pathfinder in global efforts against antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
20 years: it is the oldest and largest AMR surveillance project in the world.
Globally, the proportion of new cases with Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) has not changed in recent years. However, almost half a million new cases continue to emerge each year and serious epidemics in some countries jeopardize progress.
There is progress in the MDR-TB response: 136 000 cases eligible MDR-TB treatment were detected in 2013, up from 52 825 cases detected in 2009. The number of MDR-TB cases enrolled on treatment went up from 30 500 in 2009 to 97 000 in 2013.
Key challenges in the MDR-TB response include: growing gaps between numbers detected and numbers started on treatment, poor treatment outcomes due to health system weaknesses and inadequate drug regimens, and insufficient funding including for research.
5 priority actions are urgently needed to address the global MDR-TB crisis.