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India has had a National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) since 1962. However, a comprehensive review of the NTP in 1992 found that the NTP had not achieved its aims or targets. Based on the recommendations of the 1992 review, the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), incorporating the components of the internationally recommended DOTS strategy for the control of TB, was developed. RNTCP has now been implemented in the country for more than a decade, and has been expanded geographically to achieve nation-wide coverage in March 2006. The spread of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) during the last two decades, emergence of various forms of drug resistant TB and vast and unregulated private sector pose additional challenges in effective TB control.
Keywords: HIV, TB, diagnosis, treatment, prevention
In 2011 WHO conditionally recommended the use of at least 36 months of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) (as a proxy for lifelong or continuous treatment) for people living with HIV in high TB-prevalence and transmission settings. The evidence of the benefits and harms of 36-month IPT compared to 6-month IPT was reassessed and the following recommendation was made: “In resource-constrained settings with high TB incidence and transmission, adults and adolescents living with HIV, who have an unknown or positive tuberculin skin test (TST) status and among whom active TB disease has been safely ruled out, should receive at least 36 months of IPT. IPT should be given to such individuals regardless of whether or not they are receiving ART. IPT should also be given irrespective of the degree of immunosuppression, history of previous TB treatment, and pregnancy.” The quality of evidence was rated as low. The conditionality of the recommendation was primarily due to the fact that implementation of continuous IPT requires considerations of TB epidemiology, health infrastructure, programmatic priorities and patient adherence.
Keywords: TB, HIV, prevention, control, diagnosis, adults and adolescents
This is the thirteenth Report on Tuberculosis (TB) situation of SAARC Region which is being published by SAARC Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Centre (STAC) in a series that started in 2003, which includes a compilation of regional and country-specific achievements, challenges and plans. However the name of the report has changed “SAARC Epidemiological Response on Tuberculosis” from year 2014. The main purpose of the report is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic and progress made in TB care and control at Global, SAARC Region and Member States level.
Keywords: TB/HIV Co-infection, drug-resistant, treatment
Delamanid was discovered via a screening programme carried out by Otsuka. The compound belongs to the nitroimidazole class of compounds and is a derivative of compound CGI-17341 whose anti-TB activity was already reported in 1993.4 Indeed, various 5- and 2-nitroimidazoles and 5-nitrofurans were already known to be effective against a variety of protozoan and bacterial infections in humans and animals. For example, the published international patent application WO 97/01562 previously disclosed a 6-nitro- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro[2,1-b]-imidazopyran compound with bactericidal action in vitro to mycobacterium TB.
Keywords: HIV, TB, pediatric, testing, drugs, treatment
Like delamanid, PA-824 belongs to the nitroimidazoles class of compounds and is a derivative of compound CGI-17341 whose anti-TB activity was reported as early as 1993.3 PA-824 was discovered by Patho- Genesis Corporation, which was subsequently acquired by Chiron Corporation. Novartis AG acquired Chiron Corporation in 2006.
PA-824 is a pro-drug, which requires reductive activation of an aromatic nitro group before it becomes effective against TB bacteria.4 Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that PA-824 has potent bactericidal and sterilizing effects against DS-TB and MDR-TB. PA-824 has also been shown to be active against latent TB bacteria.
Keywords: TB, bacteria, orphan, drug, access
Anchored on the learning and insights from current TB-HIV initiatives in the country and the 2012 World Health Organization 12-point Agenda for TB-HIV Collaboration, 5th AIDS Medium Term Plan and 2010-2016 Philippine Plan for Action to Control Tuberculosis, new protocols have been adopted and concomitant changes to policies and guidelines are imminent for scale-up and full implementation. This AO is therefore, being released.
SQ109 falls into the class of drugs known as ethylenediamines. The compound was discovered by Sequella Inc in collaboration with the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). A solid phase method was developed to synthesize more than 63 000 compounds based on the 1,2-ethylenediamine structure of ethambutol. Using a high-throughput screening assay, compounds were identified that affected genes activated during cell membrane repair by the TB bacilli.
Sutezolid belongs to the oxazolidinone class of compounds, which function as protein synthesis inhibitors and were first discovered in the mid-1980s.3 Linezolid was the first compound of the oxazolidinone class to be approved for treatment of TB. It is most commonly used to treat drug-resistant TB.4 However, linezolid’s use has been limited by toxicity concerns, particularly haematological effects after periods of treatment over 14 days.
This policy is intended for programme managers under the TB and HIV programme, the Divisional HIV and TB teams, private practitioners, and stakeholders who work in the area of TB or HIV prevention, treatment and care inclusive of the Positive network for HIV in Fiji which is known as the Fiji Network for Positive People.
Keywords: TB, patients, testing and counseling, co-infected, treatment, PLHIV
The handbook aims to help a broad target audience, including national TB programme (NTP) managers, monitoring and evaluation officers, researchers including epidemiologists and statisticians, and staff working with technical, financial and development agencies.