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The AIDS response is producing exciting results and we can already foresee a time when the AIDS epidemic could end. Yet, the promises of science, politics and economic development will not be realized if we do not unite with women against violence as an integral part of the HIV response.
This report examines the prevalence and the factors associated with various types of violence against women and girls in South Asia (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka). The report also highlights the gaps where intensive research or interventions might be undertaken. Its focus, themes, and organization, as well as its content and analyses, have benefited greatly from consultation, guidance, and direct inputs from experts in the public, nongovernmental organization (NGO), private, donor, and research sectors of South Asia. This report is one component of the World Bank’s regional program, launched in January 2013, to attend to issues of gender-based violence in its operations, analytics, and collaborative work with other practitioners in South Asia.
Through the Lens of Lesbians, Bisexual Women and Transgender People in Asia is based on research conducted between November 2010 and March 2012 by women’s human rights groups, sexuality rights groups, and gender rights groups in Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines and Sri Lanka. Each country team analyzed its own data and authored a country chapter presented in this regional report.
Women living with HIV have a unique perspective on the AIDS epidemic. Similarly, women who have personally experienced violence can inform the debate on how to stop violence against women in a way that no others can. Together, they can provide valuable insight and experiences to end the AIDS epidemic and violence against women.
This collection of essays by women living with and affected by HIV sheds light on the experiences of women living with HIV in overcoming and addressing violence against women.
The current publication helps intended users in considering ‘what’ are some effective or promising strategies to consider. It does not provide detailed guidance on ‘how to’ implement them. It intentionally focuses on specific forms of violence that are most common in women’s lives globally, that are most relevant for the HIV epidemic, and for which there is more evidence on promising interventions: intimate partner violence, sexual violence by non-partners and violence experienced by women in selected key populations, such as sex workers.
Violence against women is a human rights crisis in its own right. According to the World Health Organization’s multi-country study on women’s health and violence against women, 13–61 percent of ever partnered women have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by a partner in their lifetime. Young women are at particular risk for violence, with as many as 30 percent of women in some locations reporting that their first sexual experience was coerced or forced, and the younger the women were at the time of sexual initiation, the higher the chance that it was violent. Also, the majority of sexually active girls aged 15–19 in developing countries are married, and these married adolescent girls tend to have higher rates of HIV infection than their sexually active, unmarried peers.
Keywords: HIV, gender inequality, women, violence, sex workers
Gender-based violence (GBV) is commonly thought of as an issue affecting primarily women and girls; however, stigma, discrimination and violence are also expressed toward men who have sex with men (MSM), male sex workers (MSW) and transgender (TG) individuals. While there is an increasing body of research among sexual minorities identifying the association between GBV and physical and mental health issues, including increased risk of contracting HIV, programs for these populations tend to focus on raising HIV awareness to reduce sexual risks. A better understanding of GBV among MSM/MSW/TG populations is necessary in order to develop clear and targeted recommendations for future interventions targeting this issue.
This report, developed by the World Health Organization, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the South African Medical Research Council presents the first global systematic review and synthesis of the body of scientific data on the prevalence of two forms of violence against women — violence by an intimate partner (intimate partner violence) and sexual violence by someone other than a partner (non-partner sexual violence). It shows, for the first time, aggregated global and regional prevalence estimates of these two forms of violence, generated using population data from all over the world that have been compiled in a systematic way. The report also details the effects of violence on women’s physical, sexual and reproductive, and mental health.
The extent and possibilities of spread of the HIV epidemic are not fully understood in Pakistan. A survey was conducted among men, women and transgender populations selling sex in Rawalpindi (Punjab) and Abbottabad (North West Frontier Province) in order to inform evidence-based programme planning.
Keywords: HIV, FSW, IDUs, STI, clients, condom, violence
We conclude that violence and abuse from male partners are highly prevalent among Chinese MSM, and that experience of violence from male sexual partners is linked to increased HIV risk. HIV prevention targeting Chinese MSM must address the increased risk associated with experience of male-on-male IPV. Future research should explore links between HIV risk and MSM’s perpetration of violence against male partners, as well as exploring the role of violence in the male-female relationships of men who have sex with and men and women.
Keywords: HIV and STI, MSM, MSW, intimate partner violence (IPV), prevalence, sexual risk behaviors