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We conclude that violence and abuse from male partners are highly prevalent among Chinese MSM, and that experience of violence from male sexual partners is linked to increased HIV risk. HIV prevention targeting Chinese MSM must address the increased risk associated with experience of male-on-male IPV. Future research should explore links between HIV risk and MSM’s perpetration of violence against male partners, as well as exploring the role of violence in the male-female relationships of men who have sex with and men and women.
Keywords: HIV and STI, MSM, MSW, intimate partner violence (IPV), prevalence, sexual risk behaviors
This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China.
Keywords: HIV, FSWs, violence, clients
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1983 was adopted in June 2011 just before the United Nations (UN) General Assembly High Level Meeting (HLM) agreed the Political Declaration: Intensifying Our Efforts To Eliminate HI and AIDS including ten global targets to achieve by 2015 (“HLM targets”). Together, the HLM targets and UNSC Resolution 1983 provide an opportunity to scale up universal access to HIV and AIDS related services for all uniformed service personnel1 and their family members and for people living with HIV and the key populations at higher risk of HIV with whom uniformed services personnel interact. In Asia and the Pacific, key populations include sex workers, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, transgender people, migrants and mobile populations, prisoners, internally and externally displaced people due to humanitarian situations and those at risk of sexual violence.
In this assessment, the forms of gender-based violence studied include physical, sexual, and emotional abuse of women by their husbands and partners; sexual assault by non-partners; and the physical, sexual, and emotional abuse of children. The needs of men who have sex with men; transgender people; and male, female, and transgender sex workers were also included because these groups are often targets of genderbased violence, including harassment, blackmail, and police violence [United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Asia Pacific Coalition on Male Sexual Health (APCOM), as cited in Godwin, 2010]. GBV victims and survivors may have also experienced accusations of sorcery, and discrimination in relation to their HIV status.
This Paper focuses on two areas of cross-cutting findings: the existing training and programming resources (their number, strengths, weaknesses and gaps); and the framing of responses to GBV against key populations (their principles, models and approaches).
Keywords: HIV/AIDS, sex workers, MSM, transgender pople, PWID, GBV
The report, entitled ‘Why Do Some Men Use Violence Against Women and How Can We Prevent It? Quantitative Findings from the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific’ was conducted in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Papua New Guinea. It explores the prevalence of men’s use of violence against women in the survey sites, and shows what factors make men more or less likely to use violence.
A core principle of the PEPFAR II strategy is to support the long-term sustainability of HIV-related prevention, treatment, care, and support programs and to scale up promising and innovative programs and practices. Breaking the links between HIV infection and GBV requires targeted interventions to foster changes in individual and community norms that perpetuate violence against women and other vulnerable groups (Gardsbane 2010; Interagency Gender Working Group of USAID 2008; Orndorff and Natividad 2009).
The Handbook brings together current knowledge on effective policy for the prevention of, and response to, violence against women, and concretely demonstrates how States have developed and implemented such policy in their own contexts. The document is not a model plan itself, but sets out guidelines to help policy makers and advocates formulate effective plans. It is based on good practices in States’ plans and the advice of experts from different countries and regions. The principles it encapsulates have been designed to be applied regardless of the context, size or resource base of any individual State, though the method of implementation may vary.
The National Study on Domestic Violence against Women in Tonga consisted of two separate components: a quantitative study based on the methodology developed for the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women; and a qualitative study based on Tongan methodology of Talanoa and Nofo (see below). The use of qualitative and quantitative components was to seek results that complemented each other.
Gender-based violence (GBV) is under-reported and under-researched in Vietnam (Gardsbane et al. 2010). Several small-scale studies revealed that the prevalence of GBV in Vietnam ranges widely from 16 to 37 percent for physical violence, and 19 to 55 percent for emotional violence, while sexual violence and sexual harassment are rarely reported (Jonzon et al. 2007; Nguyen 2006; Vu et al. 1999). A 2006 national survey with 9,300 households reported that in the preceding 12 months, 21.2 percent of families had reported at least one of the three forms of violence (physical, verbal, coerced sex); husbands were the most frequent perpetrators (Huong 2008). In everyday life, verbal abuse, slapping, and coerced or forced sex are often not considered violence in Vietnam (United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] 2007).
Keywords: HIV, GBV, women, violence, gender, health services