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Violence against women is a human rights crisis in its own right. According to the World Health Organization’s multi-country study on women’s health and violence against women, 13–61 percent of ever partnered women have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by a partner in their lifetime. Young women are at particular risk for violence, with as many as 30 percent of women in some locations reporting that their first sexual experience was coerced or forced, and the younger the women were at the time of sexual initiation, the higher the chance that it was violent. Also, the majority of sexually active girls aged 15–19 in developing countries are married, and these married adolescent girls tend to have higher rates of HIV infection than their sexually active, unmarried peers.
Keywords: HIV, gender inequality, women, violence, sex workers
Gender-based violence (GBV) is commonly thought of as an issue affecting primarily women and girls; however, stigma, discrimination and violence are also expressed toward men who have sex with men (MSM), male sex workers (MSW) and transgender (TG) individuals. While there is an increasing body of research among sexual minorities identifying the association between GBV and physical and mental health issues, including increased risk of contracting HIV, programs for these populations tend to focus on raising HIV awareness to reduce sexual risks. A better understanding of GBV among MSM/MSW/TG populations is necessary in order to develop clear and targeted recommendations for future interventions targeting this issue.
This report, developed by the World Health Organization, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the South African Medical Research Council presents the first global systematic review and synthesis of the body of scientific data on the prevalence of two forms of violence against women — violence by an intimate partner (intimate partner violence) and sexual violence by someone other than a partner (non-partner sexual violence). It shows, for the first time, aggregated global and regional prevalence estimates of these two forms of violence, generated using population data from all over the world that have been compiled in a systematic way. The report also details the effects of violence on women’s physical, sexual and reproductive, and mental health.
The extent and possibilities of spread of the HIV epidemic are not fully understood in Pakistan. A survey was conducted among men, women and transgender populations selling sex in Rawalpindi (Punjab) and Abbottabad (North West Frontier Province) in order to inform evidence-based programme planning.
Keywords: HIV, FSW, IDUs, STI, clients, condom, violence
We conclude that violence and abuse from male partners are highly prevalent among Chinese MSM, and that experience of violence from male sexual partners is linked to increased HIV risk. HIV prevention targeting Chinese MSM must address the increased risk associated with experience of male-on-male IPV. Future research should explore links between HIV risk and MSM’s perpetration of violence against male partners, as well as exploring the role of violence in the male-female relationships of men who have sex with and men and women.
Keywords: HIV and STI, MSM, MSW, intimate partner violence (IPV), prevalence, sexual risk behaviors
This study is one of the first to examine the association between partner violence and psychosocial distress among FSW in China. The high prevalence of violence experience and distress in this population suggests urgency for intervention. The public health programs targeting FSW should go beyond the focus on HIV/STI prevention and care for the fundamental health and human rights of millions of FSW in China.
Keywords: HIV, FSWs, violence, clients
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1983 was adopted in June 2011 just before the United Nations (UN) General Assembly High Level Meeting (HLM) agreed the Political Declaration: Intensifying Our Efforts To Eliminate HI and AIDS including ten global targets to achieve by 2015 (“HLM targets”). Together, the HLM targets and UNSC Resolution 1983 provide an opportunity to scale up universal access to HIV and AIDS related services for all uniformed service personnel1 and their family members and for people living with HIV and the key populations at higher risk of HIV with whom uniformed services personnel interact. In Asia and the Pacific, key populations include sex workers, men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, transgender people, migrants and mobile populations, prisoners, internally and externally displaced people due to humanitarian situations and those at risk of sexual violence.
In this assessment, the forms of gender-based violence studied include physical, sexual, and emotional abuse of women by their husbands and partners; sexual assault by non-partners; and the physical, sexual, and emotional abuse of children. The needs of men who have sex with men; transgender people; and male, female, and transgender sex workers were also included because these groups are often targets of genderbased violence, including harassment, blackmail, and police violence [United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Asia Pacific Coalition on Male Sexual Health (APCOM), as cited in Godwin, 2010]. GBV victims and survivors may have also experienced accusations of sorcery, and discrimination in relation to their HIV status.
This Paper focuses on two areas of cross-cutting findings: the existing training and programming resources (their number, strengths, weaknesses and gaps); and the framing of responses to GBV against key populations (their principles, models and approaches).
Keywords: HIV/AIDS, sex workers, MSM, transgender pople, PWID, GBV
The report, entitled ‘Why Do Some Men Use Violence Against Women and How Can We Prevent It? Quantitative Findings from the UN Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific’ was conducted in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Papua New Guinea. It explores the prevalence of men’s use of violence against women in the survey sites, and shows what factors make men more or less likely to use violence.