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This policy brief is based on the results of the report entitled, “For Money and Sex – The HIV Vulnerability and Risks of MSM Migrant Workers from Bangladesh, Pakistan and the Philippines,” which was produced with support from the UNAIDS Regional Support Team for Asia and the Pacific.
Formal labour migration procedures are assumed to be beneficial to migrant workers in various ways, including by reducing vulnerability to abuse and exploitation. Little empirical work, however, has been conducted comparing the experiences of regular and irregular migrant workers, and assessing the outcomes of these different migration models. The report contributes to filling this gap in the study of migrant work, with a focus on the migration corridor between the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and Thailand.
The survey was undertaken primarily to track the trend of HIV prevalence among MLMs and to understand risky sexual behaviors among MLMs of Western and Mid to Far Western Regions of Nepal. Information on the socio-demographic characteristics, work and migration, sexual behavior and condom use with different partners in Nepal and during the stay in India; knowledge perception and attitude on HIV/AIDS and STI; use of drug and injection; exposure to STI, HIV and AIDS awareness programs; and stigma/discrimination against HIV infected person were collected using a structured questionnaire.
Despite numerous international treaties and commitments to protect the health rights of migrants, this population still faces significant barriers in their access to TB care. Migration, which is driven by a number of complex economic, social, political and environmental factors, is a determinant of ill health, and the health outcomes of migrants are impacted by the various dimensions of the migration process.
The Inter-regional Roundtable Discussion on “Addressing Health Vulnerabilities of Migrants in Large Migration Flows”, co-organised by the Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on 25 April 2016 in Geneva, Switzerland, marked the first expert-level Roundtable aimed at examining unprecedented migrant health issues emerging across Asia and Europe. The discussion focused on a comparative analysis of the public health challenges faced in transit and receiving nations in the Mediterranean Sea and the Andaman Sea.
The Roundtable brought together 40 participants, experts and representatives from the governments, UN agencies, inter- and non-governmental organisations and the to share and discuss their experience, knowledge and perspectives on the challenges and interventions made by countries and humanitarian actors to address the recent migration crisis in Asia and Europe.
Human migration, defined as the “movement of a person or a group of persons, either across an international border, or within a State”, has been increasing over the last several decades (1). According to current United Nations estimates, there are approximately 232 million international migrants worldwide, with over 71 million living in Asia, and an additional 740 million internal migrants moving within their own countries (2,3). The total number of migrants worldwide is greater than the population of all but the world’s two most-populous nations.
This is the fifth round of Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey (IBBS) conducted among the Male Labour Migrants (MLM) of 11 districts of Western (5) and Mid to Far Western (6) Regions of Nepal. Primarily, this survey was carried out to track the trend in prevalence of HIV among MLMs and to explore the sexual risk behaviors associated with the HIV infection. This survey was carried during July-September 2015. Two stage 30 cluster sampling method was adopted in this survey. Desired numbers of participants were selected on the basis of population proportion to size from selected clusters. Each of Village Development Committee/Municipality/Sub-Metropolitan city of the selected districts of Western and Mid to Far Western Regions were considered clusters.
Keywords: Nepal, HIV, IBBS, MLM, prevalence
This is the fifth round of Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) survey conducted among 720 Male Labor Migrants (MLM) (360 migrants of Western Region and 360 migrants of Mid to Far Western Region). Survey was conducted in 11 districts of both the Regions (Five districts: Kaski, Syangja, Palpa, Kapilvastu, Gulmi of Western Region and Six districts: Banke, Surkhet, Kailali, Kanchanpur, Doti and Achham of Mid to Far Western Region).
The purpose of this report is to describe the familial structure of ‘migrant’ households in rural Cambodia – that is, households that report the recent departure of a former household member – and to investigate the association between the household structure and the socio-economic conditions of the household. Particular attention is paid to households containing one or more children of the migrant and/or one or more older parent of the migrant. The analysis in this report is primarily descriptive, although multivariate modeling is also reported.
Keywords: migrants, children, data, households
While all undocumented migrant workers face similar hardships, it is particularly challenging for migrant women who bear increased burdens and gender-based discrimination which reduces their ability to negotiate health rights at home, in hospitals, and at work. Furthermore, even upon return home, migrant women face problems re-registering, resulting in limited to no access to public health care.
Across the region there are gaps in health care for migrant women, with the most pronounced gaps particularly being sexual and reproductive health services and care for mental health. Sometimes health care policies and programming for migrants focuses specifically on certain diseases such as HIV and AIDS without making available other health information and health care services. Lack of long term health care policies for migrants combined with poor enforcement of migrants’ labour rights also pose significant barriers to migrant women’s ability to stay healthy and access health care.
Keywords: Thailand, Myanmar Cambodia, Loa PDR, China,Vietnam, sex work, prevention, discrimination