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Practices like child, early and forced marriage (CEFM) remain an obstacle to the full achievement of better health for children and adolescents. CEFM is also a human rights violation that endangers health and growth, disrupts education, limits opportunities for empowerment and social development, and increases the risk of exposure to violence and abuse.
A 10 per cent reduction in CEFM could contribute to a 70 per cent reduction in maternal mortality rates and a three per cent decrease in infant mortality in individual countries. Getting married at an earl y age also leads to higher fertility rates, unwanted pregnancies, a higher risk of complications during childbirth, limited educational advancement, and reduced economic earning potential for girls and wome
This study aims to assist parliamentarians in their efforts to end CEFM through legislation, and to improve the health of children and young girls in their countries.
Childhood TB has been called a “sentinel event” because it indicates failure on two fronts. First, it signals an ongoing transmission, since the child likely contracted TB from someone close to him or her and who has likely remained untreated. Second, it indicates a wider failure in the system, since it points to the lack of preventative therapy that could have easily stopped the child from developing TB in the first place.
Keywords: TB, children, diagnostics, treatment, health system
Despite continuing progress in stopping new HIV infections among children there are still major challenges in ensuring access to effective antiretroviral therapy for children living with HIV. The challenges start with diagnosing HIV among children.
This brochure includes the first global estimates on the time girls spend doing household chores such as cooking, cleaning, caring for family members and collecting water and firewood. The data show that the disproportionate burden of domestic work begins early, with girls between 5 and 9 years old spending 30 per cent more time, or 40 million more hours a day, on household chores than boys their age. The disparities grow as girls get older, with 10 to 14 year olds spending 50 per cent more time, or 120 million more hours each day.
Keywords: HIV, SDGs, women, girls, gender, discrimination, violence
Intrepid Nepal (INPL) carried out this Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) survey under the leadership of the National Center for AIDS and STD Control (NCASC) with financial support from Save the Children International, Nepal. This is the first round of the IBBS Survey conducted among street involved children and youths in three districts in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. This survey is a part of the National HIV Surveillance Plan (2012) and National HIV and AIDS Strategy (2011-2016). The first round of the survey was undertaken to determine the prevalence of HIV infections and to assess the sexual and/or injecting behaviors related to HIV among street involved children and youths in the Kathmandu Valley.
Nepal is categorized as a country facing a concentrated HIV epidemic. The National Centre for AIDS and STD Control (NCASC) has estimated that there were 39,249 PLHIV in Nepal in 2014 with adult HIV prevalence of 0.20% (NCASC, 2014).The spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is concentrated among Key Affected Populations (KAPs) comprising of people who inject drugs (PWIDs), men who have sex with men (MSM), labor migrants and spouses, and Female Sex Workers (FSWs). The transmission of HIV is largely driven by KAPs and consequential health-risk behaviors. The Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) survey is a descriptive serial cross-sectional survey conducted to monitor trends in HIV and STI prevalence and to assess behavioral information from high-risk groups. Behavioral surveillance is the systematic and ongoing collection of data about risk behaviors related to disease and health conditions, with the purpose of correlating trends in behavior with changes in disease over time.
This report lays out by country significant pieces of work that contribute to ending child marriage in eight countries of South Asia.
It starts with an overview of major regional initiatives, and then it covers government, UN and civil society/NGO initiatives by country. A final matrix identifies key strategies per initiative. A number of policies, key studies, and national plans are included as well for a better understanding of the legal foundation of child marriage and adolescent empowerment work.
Keywords: girls, adolescents, violence, rights, children
The Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive (Global Plan) was launched in June 2011. It prioritizes the 22 countries1 that, in 2009, accounted for 90% of the global number of pregnant women living with HIV who were in need of services to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. This report summarizes the history and development of the Global Plan, its achievements in reaching ambitious goals, lessons learned and directions for future progress to end new HIV infections among children.
Keywords: HIV, infections, children, prevention, antiretroviral medicines, pregnant women, breastfeeding
The ‘Start Free, Stay Free, AIDS Free’ Super-Fast- Track framework and action plan builds on remarkable success achieved between 2011 and 2015 in reducing the number of new HIV infections among children as well as increasing the number of children with HIV on treatment.
It provides a menu of policy and programmatic actions designed to enable countries and partners to close the remaining HIV prevention and treatment gap for children, adolescents young women, and expectant mothers.
Every child has the right to health, education and protection, and every society has a stake in expanding children’s opportunities in life. Yet, around the world, millions of children are denied a fair chance for no reason other than the country, gender or circumstances into which they are born. The State of the World’s Children 2016 argues that progress for the most disadvantaged children is not only a moral, but also a strategic imperative. Stakeholders have a clear choice to make: invest in accelerated progress for the children being left behind, or face the consequences of a far more divided world by 2030. At the start of a new development agenda, the report concludes with a set of recommendations to help chart the course towards a more equitable world.