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Sex workers experience extreme violence – at work, in prison and police stations, in their neighbourhoods and in their homes, from family members, police, clients, intimate partners and strangers. This violence is gender-based. Male, female and transgender sex workers are targeted because they challenge traditional gender norms and are denied fundamental human rights – to equal protection under the law, protection from cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, and to the highest attainable standard of health.
This report documents abuses suffered by a group of hijras, when they were forced to undergo so-called medical examinations at a hospital in Dhaka, the capital, in 2015, as part of a government employment program. The medical exams were ordered as part of the routine government hiring procedure, but absent a clear procedure to identify and respect hijras, hospital staff responded based on their own personal biases. Although a 2013 directive from the cabinet recognizes hijras as a third gender, the government has not developed rights-based procedures for changing their gender on official documents, leaving them open to abuse when they seek to assert their rights, Human Rights Watch found.
This is the fifth round of the IBBS survey conducted among Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) population in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Previously, the survey was carried out in 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012 in the same location among the same population. In line with the objectives of the previous rounds of the IBBS, this survey was also undertaken primarily with objectives to: a) determine the prevalence and trend of HIV Syphilis, Chlamydia Trachomati (CT) and Neisseria Gonorrhea (NG) and associated risk behaviors among MSM/ Transgender (TG), b) Collect information related to socio-demographic characteristics and c) Explore the association between the risk behaviors and HIV and other specific STIs among the MSM and TG population. Fieldwork for data collection was conducted in August, 2015.
This study assesses the barriers faced by men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people in Bhutan in accessing health services. It seeks to identify the level of stigma and discrimination against these marginalized groups as well as assesses the strengths, limitations and needs of the health services dealing with their sexual health. The study puts forth a set of concrete recommendations aimed at addressing the issues that have been identified.
Keywords: HIV, PLHIV, homophobia, gender, stigma, discrimination, gender
Stigma and discrimination against transgender people frequently cause them to be rejected by their families and denied healthcare services, including access to HIV testing, counselling and treatment.
As of 2015, five rounds of IBBS surveys (i.e. Round 1 in 2004, Round 2 in 2007, Round 3 in 2009, Round 4 in 2012, and Round 5 in 2015) have been conducted in Nepal. The main objectives of the IBBS survey were to: determine the prevalence and trend of HIV Syphilis, Chlamydia Trachomati(CT) and Neisseria Gonorrhoea(NG) and associated risk behaviors among MSM/ Transgender (TG), collect information related to socio-demographic characteristics and explore the association between the risk behaviors and HIV and other specific STIs among the MSM/TG population.
Keywords: Nepal, HIV, STI, ART, prevalence, condom use, partners, stigma and discrimination, drug use
Every day, transgender (trans) people face human rights violations that harm their health and well-being, limit their opportunities and increase their vulnerability to HIV. This brief provides programmers and policymakers with a framework to understand the risks faced by the trans community and describes concrete steps that can be taken to reduce the burden of HIV and protect the rights of trans people around the world.
A Framework for Media Engagement on Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Asia: Regional Framework, Literature Review and Country Case Studies provides direction for how men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender communities should engage with the media, and how the media itself should leverage its influence to reduce stigma and discrimination, educate and raise awareness of human rights issues, and support strategies and programmes that improve the political, social and legal environments for MSM and transgender people in South Asia. The report includes case studies from Bangladesh, Nepal and India and provides recommendations for actions by programme managers working in South Asia for both managing media and for empowering communities to work more effectively with media.
According to the First ASEAN Regional Report on HIV and AIDS in 2011, “Addressing AIDS in ASEAN Region”, there are 1.5 million people estimated to be living with HIV distributed amongst the ASEAN Member States (AMS). The national HIV prevalence rates in the region range from 0.1 per cent to 0.7 per cent. Although prevalence rates are decreasing, current estimates indicate that there are some AMS that are showing an increasing trend.
This country report is a product of a broader initiative, ‘Being LGBT in Asia’, which was launched in December 2012. It is the first-of-its-kind Asia-wide learning activity carried out with Asian grassroots LGBT organizations and community leaders alongside USAID and UNDP. In Cambodia, it has additionally partnered with OHCHR. With a focus on eight countries – Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nepal, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam – the initiative examines LGBT lived experiences from a development and rights perspective.
Keywords: LGBT, human rights, legal environment, sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, discrimination