The 2012 Integrated Behavior and Biological Surveillance (IBBS) of HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections and Associated Risk Behaviors. Pansuwan N, Wisawakam P, Saengwanloy O, Jittakot Y and Pawa D. (2014)


HIV surveillance applies a repeated survey method and the 28th round was conducted in 2010. Collected data were used to compare with those from the previous rounds to monitor changes of HIV prevalence. Data were collected from IDU rehabilitation clinics of general hospitals, provincial hospitals, and drug rehabilitation centers by collecting all visited IDU cases in June. If the sample size is less than 10, data collection will be extended until the 15th of July. Data from the provinces of more than 20 samples will be used to calculate the median of HIV infection at the national level.

Keywords: HIV, Thailand, key populations, IDU, prevalence, knowledge

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The Global State of Harm Reduction 2012 - Towards an Integrated Response. Public Health, Research and Policy Programme of Harm Reduction International (2012)

GlobalState HarmReduction_2012-1

The  Global State of Harm Reduction 2012 presents the major developments in harm reduction policy adoption and programme implementation that have occurred since 2010. It also explores several major topics for developing an integrated harm reduction response, such as effective harm reduction services for women who inject drugs; access to harm reduction services by young people; drug use among men who have sex with men and implications for harm reduction; global progress toward building an enabling policy environment for harm reduction implementation through drug decriminalisation and regulation; case studies on sustainability and scale-up of services; and promotion of harm reduction approaches in challenging environments.

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Vietnam Report 2010 - Behavioral Survey of Injecting Drug Users in Vietnam. Khanh VN, Tung PD, Mundy G, et al (2012).

PSI IDU Behavior Survey 2010-1

Data was collected via individual face-to-face interviews, using a structured questionnaire. The survey was conducted with a sample of male injecting drug users (IDUs), using a respondent driven sampling method.

A total of 1,094 injecting drug users were interviewed for the behavior survey. An injecting drug user (for this study) was defined as any male who had injected in the past 1 month and who are aged between 18-40 years.



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Characteristics of High Risk HIV-Positive IDUs in Vietnam: Implications for Future Interventions. Go VF, Frangakis C, Nam LV, et al (2011)


The first case of HIV was diagnosed in Vietnam in 1990 (Ivker, 1996). HIV cases have now been recorded in all 64 provinces and the number of people living with HIV has doubled since 2000, reaching an estimated 263,000 by 2005 (Ministry of Health Viet Nam, 2005; UNAIDS, 2005).

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Evaluation of the Epidemiological Impact of Harm Reduction Programs on HIV in Vietnam. Wilson D, Zhang L, Thein R, et al. (2011)

Vietnam Impact Evaluation Report 2011-1

Vietnam's HIV epidemic is concentrated, both in specific behavioral sub-populations and geographic regions. The key  populations at higher risk for HIV infection in Vietnam are female sex workers (FSW) and their clients; injecting drug users (IDU); and men who have sex with men (MSM). Vietnam identified harm reduction interventions for IDU and FSW as a key component of its last 5-year National HIV strategy 2004-2009.

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Fact Sheet: IBBS 2011 Round V Injecting Drug Users, Kathmandu and Pokhara Valleys. National Center for AIDS and STD Control, New ERA and Intrepid Nepal (2011)

ibbs nepal 2011

The fifth round of Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) surveys among male injecting drug users (IDUs) covered a sample of 685 respondents in Kathmandu valley-Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur districts (n=340) and Pokhara valley (n=345), henceforth referred to as Kathmandu and Pokhara.

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In the Shadows: The Chanura Kol Baseline Study on Women Who Inject Drugs in Manipur, India. India HIV/AIDS Alliance and Social Awareness Service Organisation (2011)


Largely neglected in the current HIV strategy in India, women who inject drugs are a highly marginalised and vulnerable population in need of a comprehensive response to meet their health and social needs. The India HIV/AIDS Alliance (Alliance India) in partnership with SASO has initiated a pilot program for women who inject drugs in Manipur, called ‘Chanura Kol’—which means ‘garden of women’ in Manipuri. With support from the Elton John AIDS Foundation, this project provides HIV prevention, drug-related services, and impact mitigation for women in three sites across Manipur – Imphal, Churachandpur and Moreh.


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Influence of Perceived Secondary Stigma and Family on The Response to HIV Infection among Injection Drug Users in Vietnam. Salter ML, Go VF, Minh NL, et al (2011)


The full impact of secondary stigma (stigma directed at family) on an HIV-positive individual is unknown. This qualitative research explores perceptions of secondary stigma in the Vietnamese context and its influence on the ways in which an injection drug user (IDU) copes with HIV infection.

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Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) Survey among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal - Round V - 2011. USAID, ASHA (2011)

global hivaids response progress report unaids 2011

This report details the findings of the fifth round of the IBBS conducted among 340 male IDUs in the Kathmandu Valley, recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). A structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents at a centrally located survey center. The questionnaire collected information on sexual behavior and HIV/AIDS awareness as well as socio-demographics. After the interview, clinical examinations were conducted by a Health Assistant and blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis testing by a lab technician. The test results were provided in coordination with pre- and post-test counseling by a trained counselor in the survey center.



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Mapping and Size Estimation of Most At Rist Population in Nepal Vol. 2 Injecting Drug Users. National Centre for AIDS and STD Control, Nepal (2011)

IDUs final_report

Nepal conducted a mapping and size estimation exercise of Most at Risk Population (MARP) groups in consideration of the epidemic’s nature, limited information available on the MARP groups of Female Sex Workers (FSWs), Men having Sex with Men (MSMs), and Injecting Drug User (IDUs) population,and the need for a more robust and evidence informed response to HIV in order to maximize results.




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