Social Injecting and other Correlates of High-Risk Sexual Activity among Injecting Drug Users in Northern Vietnam. Schumacher CM, Go VF, Nam LV, et al (2009)

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IDUs who inject socially and IDUs who share needles are likely to engage in highrisk sexual behaviors and may serve as an important bridge group for epidemic HIV transmission in Vietnam. In addition to messages regarding the dangers of sharing needles and other injection equipment, preventive interventions among newly initiated IDUs should also focus on reducing sexual risk.


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Systematic Review of HIV and HCV Infection among Drug Users in China. Bao YP and Liu ZM (2009)

Systematic Review of HIV and HCV Infection among Drug Users in China. Bao YP and Liu ZM (2009) To determine the HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) geographical distribution among drug users in China, a systematic literature review of 40 peer-reviewed publications (comprising 15,565 drug users) was conducted. Of the total drug users, 10,724 were found to be injection drug users (IDUs) and 4841 were non-injection drug users (non-IDUs). Various studies identified that among IDUs and non-IDUs, the overall HIV prevalence rates were 12.55% and 1.05%, and the HCV prevalence rates were 66.97% and 18.30%, respectively. The HIV prevalence rate ranged from 0% (Anhui and Inner Mongolia) to 52.51% (Yunnan) among IDUs, and from 0% to 19.80% among non-IDUs correspondingly. The HCV prevalence rate ranged from 11.43% (Shannxi) to 90.77% (Hubei) among IDUs, and from 0% (Anhui) to 40.00% (Fujian) among non-IDUs. Based on the high prevalence of HIV and HCV among drug users, scaling-up harm reduction was required from ‘heroin trafficking areas’ to other areas in China.

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The 3rd. National Strategy on AIDS - Reducing HIV Vulnerability among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) and Their Sex Partners. The Needle Syringe Exchange Programme and MMT Program (2009)

The 3rd. National Strategy on AIDS - Reducing HIV Vulnerability among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) and Their Sex Partners. The Needle Syringe Exchange Programme and MMT Program (2009)

Harm reduction

1. Methadone Maintenance Therapy to achieve 25,000 coverage by 2010

2. Needle Syringe Exchange Program to achieve 15,000 Coverage by 2010

3. Safe Sex (Condom use) for the HIV+ve and those who have sex with HIV+ve or unknown HIV status partners



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The Context of HIV Risk Behaviours among HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users in Viet Nam: Moving Toward Effective Harm Reduction. Thanh DC, Moland KM and Fylkesnes K (2009)

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Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIVpositive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices.


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A Community Based Care and Support Model for Injecting Drug Users Living with HIV. Alliance (2008)

A Community Based Care and Support Model for Injecting Drug Users Living with HIV. Alliance (2008) With a population of approximately 2.4 million which is about 0.2 per cent of India’s population, Manipur ranks highest in HIV prevalence amongst the seven northeastern states of India. The adult HIV prevalence in Manipur (1.67 per cent) is even greater than the estimated national average (0.36 per cent). According to a recent report from the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) – “...recent studies indicate that HIV prevalence has been stabilising, and states like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Nagaland have started showing declining trends...” – it is to be noted here that Manipur does not figure among these states. Insurgency, high unemployment, poverty and easy availability of drugs leading to much other risky behaviour have all been contributing factors to high HIV prevalence.

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Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance Country Report 2007. National AIDS Control Organization (2008)

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The Annual Sentinel Surveillance for HIV was started in the country in 1998 using standardized methodology. It is conducted by the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) and the States AIDS Control Societies (SACS). NIHFW has been associated with it for data collection, monitoring, analysis and preparing the country report since 1998.


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Behavioural Surveillance Survey 2008: Injecting Drug Users and Female Sex Workers. National AIDS Programme Myanmar and WHO (2008)

Behavioural Surveillance Survey 2008: Injecting Drug Users and Female Sex Workers. National AIDS Programme Myanmar and WHO (2008) To monitor the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among higher risk groups the National AIDS Programme (NAP) has a two prong surveillance system which consists of HIV sentinel sero- surveillance and behavioural surveillance surveys (BSS). Both are critical components for assessing and evaluating the overall impact of the national response to HIV and AIDS. The previous round of BSS, in 2003, were conducted among the general population. Between late 2007 and the first quarter 2008, BSS was conducted in female sex workers (FSW) and injection drug users (IDU), for first time by the NAP.

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Global Epidemiology Of Injecting Drug Use And HIV Among People Who Inject Drugs: A Systematic Review. Mathers BM, Degenhardt L, Phillips B, et al (2008)

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Injecting drug use has created major international public-health problems. The transmission of bloodborne viruses, in particular HIV, contributes substantially to the morbidity and mortality caused by illicit drug use.


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Harm Reduction Developments 2008. International Harm Reduction Development (2008)

A Review of Strategies and Policies of the National Anti-Drugs Agency. Kaur S (2009)

Injecting drug use drives HIV epidemics in a growing number of countries in Asia and
the former Soviet Union. UNAIDS identifies the Russian Federation’s HIV epidemic as the largest in Europe, with an estimated 940,000 HIV cases in 2005. There are more people living with HIV in Russia and Ukraine than in the United States and Canada combined.


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HIV Outbreak among IDUs in Larkana, Pakistan Serious Threat for Generalized Epidemic. Abbasi, B (2008)

HIV Outbreak among IDUs in Larkana, Pakistan Serious Threat for Generalized Epidemic. Abbasi, B (2008) Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) are at increased risk for requiring and transmitting HIV infection. Present study describes HIV outbreak among IDUs in Larkana, Pakistan and discusses its implications on future HIV epidemics in the country.

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https://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/NACO_State_Epi_factsheets_V3_Northern_Central_Eastern_region_2017.pdf
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