Three Cents A Day is Not Enough - Resourcing HIV-related Harm Reduction on a Global Basis. Stimson GV, Cook C, Bridge J, et al (2010)

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People who inject drugs should benefit from the large increases in the global resources available for HIV. However, it is difficult to measure how much of global HIV spending actually goes into harm reduction. Although harm reduction is relatively invisible in national and international budgets, it is possible to calculate a plausible estimate of HIVrelated harm reduction expenditure in low and middle income countries between 2007 and 2009. These results demonstrate the degree to which the international community is failing to address the issue of HIV among injecting drug using populations.

 

 

 

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Vietnam Moves Forward with Harm Reduction: An Assessment of Progress. Reid G and Higgs P (2010)

Vietnam Moves Forward with Harm Reduction: An Assessment of Progress. Reid G and Higgs P (2010)

Vietnam has a long historical and cultural connection with illicit drugs. As early as the nineteenth century, British opium began flooding into southern China and then to Vietnam. By 1820, the economic strains of opium addiction resulted in the Vietnamese monarchy outlawing opium (McCoy 1991, Le 1999), but this proved
ineffective and estimates of drug use prevalence were high; by 1945 it was estimated that 2% of the population was dependent on opium (Nguyen 1998).

Source: Reid G, & Higgs P. (2010). Vietnam Moves forward with Harm Reduction: An Assessment of Progress. Global Public Health.



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Women Who Inject Drugs in Central Java and HIV Risk. Spooner C, Saktiawati A.M.I., Lazuardi E, et al (2010)

Women who_inject_drugs

HIV is a significant public health issue for Indonesia which, outside the Papuan provinces, has been largely driven by injecting drug use. The majority of people who inject drugs in Indonesia are men, so most of the research relating to HIV and injecting drug use has been with men. However, international experience identifies that the experience of women who inject is different to that of men and that gender-specific HIV prevention strategies are needed. Therefore, information about women who inject drugs in Indonesia is necessary for HIV policy and programs.

 

 

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Women who Inject Drugs: A Review of Their Risks, Experiences and Needs. Roberts A, Mathers B and Degenhardt L (2010)

Women who_inject_drugs

Women who inject drugs have substantially different needs and face higher risks of disease and violence than do men who inject drugs. Given this difference, it is surprising that much of the literature on injecting drug users (IDU) does not distinguish between men and women when discussing prevalence, needs, risks and outcomes of injection. This has led to a possible underrepresentation of the specific issues that female IDU face and a gap in appropriate policy development and understanding around their specific needs.

 

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World Drug Report 2010. UNODC (2010)

World Drug Report 2010. UNODC (2010) Drug control has been on the global agenda for more than a century. As documented in the 2008 World Drug Report, the Chinese opium epidemic in the early twentieth century spurred concerted international action, chiefly in the form of a series of treaties passed over several decades. These treaties, in particular the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the 1971 Con- vention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 Con- vention against the Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, continue to define the interna- tional drug control system. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is the guardian of these treaties and the United Nations lead agency on drug control.

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World Drug Report 2010. UNODC (2010)

World Drug Report 2010. UNODC (2010) This World Drug Report shows the various components of the drug market, and explains the dynamics that drive them. It confirms that drug policy must stay the course we have promoted at UNODC over the past years, focussed on the four basic rights of health, development, security and human rights.

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A Rapid Assessment and Response to HIV and Drug Use In Mongolia. Mathers, B., et al, University of NSW (2009)

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In September 2006 a Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) addressing drug use and HIV/AIDS in Mongolia commissioned by the World Health Organisation Regional Office for the Western Pacific was conducted by a team from the Program of International Research and Training (PIRT) of the Australian National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC). WHO RAR Guidelines were followed. Four members of PIRT spent a total of 59 person-days in country conducting research activities and writing this report.


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A Review of Strategies and Policies of the National Anti-Drugs Agency. Kaur S (2009)

A Review of Strategies and Policies of the National Anti-Drugs Agency. Kaur S (2009) - The drug of choice in Malaysia is opiate-based drugs (heroine and morphine) and marijuana
- In the past decade, annually more than 35,000 drug addicts are identified in the country

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At What Cost? HIV and Human Rights Consequences of the Global “War on Drugs”. Open Society Institute (2009)

At What Cost? HIV and Human Rights Consequences of the Global “War on Drugs”. Open Society Institute (2009) A decade ago, the member states of the United Nations gathered for a special session of the General Assembly to address the question of how to respond to the world’s drug problems. Convened under the motto “A Drug-free World: We Can Do It!” the nations pledged to achieve significant progress toward total elimination of the opium poppy, the coca bush, and the cannabis plant, and to take “appropriate measures aimed at eliminating or reducing illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.”1 They also agreed to convene another high-level meeting ten years later to assess how these efforts were progressing.

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Bangladesh Country Advocacy Brief: Injecting Drug Use and HIV. UNODC and UNAIDS (2009)

Bangladesh Country Advocacy Brief: Injecting Drug Use and HIV. UNODC and UNAIDS (2009) Bangladesh is among the first countries in Asia to include harm reduction in the National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS, to include people who inject drugs as a surveillance population in the HIV Sentinel Surveillance on a national scale, to undertake a national size estimation of the population of people who inject drugs, and among the first countries to initiate targeted prevention interventions on a large scale among several most at risk populations, including people who inject drugs.

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