The Hidden Truth Nepal - A Study of HIV Vulnerability, Risk Factors and Prevalence among the Wives and Intimate Partners of Men who Inject Drugs. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Netherlands, Mainline Foundation, Amsterdam, et al (2011)

The hidden_truth

In Nepal injecting drug use is recognised as a significant driver of the HIV epidemic due to high levels of needle/syringe sharing and insufficient coverage of HIV prevention services. Previous studies have assessed people who inject drugs as a “most at risk population”, and have missed the opportunity to understand the related risks and vulnerability of their wives, intimate partners, children and communities. The “Hidden Truth - Nepal” has revealed previously unrecognised risks and vulnerability of wives, intimate partners and children of men who inject drugs in Kathmandu, Nepal.

 

 

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The Spread of HIV in Pakistan: Bridging of the Epidemic between Populations. Khanani MR, Somani M, Rehmani SS, et al (2011)

Of Transgender and Sin in Asia. Winter  S (2006)

In the last two decades, ‘concentrated epidemics’ of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have established in several high risk groups in Pakistan, including Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) and among men who have sex with men (MSM). To explore the transmission patterns of HIV infection in these major high-risk groups of Pakistan, 76 HIV samples were analyzed from MSM, their female spouses and children, along with 26 samples from a previously studied cohort of IDUs.


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Women who Use Drugs, Harm Reduction and HIV. The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS. (2011)

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This issue brief about HIV, harm reduction and the sexual and reproductive health and rights of women who use drugs is part of a series of briefng papers, commissioned by the Global Coalition on Women and AIDS (GCWA), and is designed to provide up-to-date information around key issues concerning HIV prevention, treatment and care related to women and girls. Harm reduction refers to policies, programmes and practices that aim to reduce the harms associated with the use of psychoactive drugs. The defning features are the focus on the prevention of harm, rather than on the prevention of drug use itself, including a focus on people who continue to use drugs.

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A Preview of Law and Policy in South and South East Asia: Drugs, Treatment and Harm Reduction. The Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit (2010)

A Preview of Law and Policy in South and South East Asia: Drugs, Treatment and Harm Reduction. The Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit (2010) Unsafe injecting practices among people using drugs is a primary driver of HIV in many parts of Asia. As the fastest and most efficient route of transmission, injecting drug use with unsterile equipment is considered ‘explosive’ to the rapid spread of HIV. This impending threat is significant for a number of countries in South and South East Asia that report highest incidence of HIV infections among injecting drug users(IDUs).

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A Strategy to Halt and Reverse the HIV Epidemic among People Who Inject Drugs in Asia and the Pacific 2010-2015. WHO, USAID, UNODC, et al (2010)

A Strategy to Halt and Reverse the HIV Epidemic among People Who Inject Drugs in Asia and the Pacific 2010-2015. WHO, USAID, UNODC, et al (2010) A strategy to halt and reverse the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in Asia and the Pacific, 2010–2015 A regional strategy (2010–2015) for removing the barriers to “universal access” and “harm reduction” to halt the epidemics of HIV and viral hepatitis among and from people who inject drugs (PWID) in Asia and the Pacific was developed by the United Nations Regional Task Force on Injecting Drug Use and HIV/AIDS for Asia and the Pacific. It was developed in pursuit of the sixth Millennium Development Goal (MDG)2 which is to “Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases”. Specifically, the targets are to “Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS among 15–24-year-olds (6.1), increase condom use at high risk sex (6.2) and ensure that those who need it will have universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment including antiretroviral drugs by 2010 (6.5)”.

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A Strategy to Halt and Reverse the HIV Epidemic among People who Inject Drugs in Asia and the Pacific 2010-2015. WHO. (2010)

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The response in the Asia Pacific region to the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs is varied. There are many needle and syringe programmes, methadone and buprenorphine clinics are becoming increasingly available, and access to antiretroviral therapy for people who use drugs is continuing to increase. But these efforts have not been sufficiently scaled up to halt the spread of HIV. New challenges such as the co-infection with hepatitis C and the increasing use of methamphetamines are impacting the early gains in the response to HIV, jeopardizing further success in the region. In addition, poor promotion of condoms in the current response is facilitating the spread of HIV from people who use drugs to their sexual partners and the population at large.

 


Keywords: HIV, drug policy, human rights, health services

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Female Drug Use in Pakistan: Mapping Estimates, Ethnographic Results and Behaviourial Assessment. UNODC (2010)

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Pakistan has always confronted with a drug abuse problem ever since its existence and today, the country has the largest heroin consumer market in the south-west Asia region. While the entire region suffers from the drug trade in South Asia, Pakistan appears to be its worst victim.


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Female Drug Users and Female Regular Sex Partners of Male Drug Uses in Bangladesh - A Report. Azim T, Chowdhury EI, Alam S, et al (2010)

Female Drug_Users_and_Female_regular_sex_partners_of_male_drug_users_Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, harm reduction services for male injecting drug users (IDUs) have expanded over the years. However, services for female drug users and female sex partners of male drug users are limited. These population groups are highly stigmatised and hidden which makes service provision difficult.

 

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Global State of Harm Reduction 2010: Key Issues for Broadening the Response. International Harm Reduction Association (2010)

Global State of Harm Reduction 2010: Key Issues for Broadening the Response. International Harm Reduction Association (2010) In 2008 the International Harm Reduction Association (IHRA) released the Global State of Harm Reduction, a report that mapped responses to drug-related HIV and hepatitis C epidemics around the world for the first time.a The information gathered for the report provided a critical baseline against which progress could be measured in terms of the international, regional and national acceptance and action on harm reduction policies and interventions.

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Harm Reduction in Asia: Progress Towards Universal Access to Harm Reduction Services among People who Inject Drugs. Burnet Institute (2010)

Harm Reduction in Asia: Progress Towards Universal Access to Harm Reduction Services among People who Inject Drugs. Burnet Institute (2010) In 2009, the United Nations Regional Task Force on Injecting Drug Use and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific (UNRTF) commissioned Burnet Institute, Australia, to undertake a review of policies, resources and services for injecting drug users (IDUs), in order to update the baseline assessment conducted in 2006. 

This update was designed to collect specific information regarding existing activities and conditions which facilitate or hinder the implementation of harm reduction services in the selected countries, with which to augment the annual UNGASS Country Progress Reports. The information collected will also contribute to informing the UNRTF of its effectiveness in driving the harm reduction response, and its strategic activity planning for the coming years.



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