Integrated HIV Behavioral and Serologic Surveillance Findings. National AIDS/STI Prevention and Control Program Philippines (2005)

Integrated HIV Behavioral and Serologic Surveillance Findings. National AIDS/STI Prevention and Control Program Philippines (2005) The Department of Health initiated HIV behavioral and biological surveillance in the Philippines in 1993, one of the first such systems in Asia. Since that time, surveillance data has been collected yearly to provide the HIV and risk behavior prevalence data that is necessary to enable the country to monitor and respond to its epidemic. Over the past decade, methods for sampling and surveying surveillance populations in low prevalence epidemics, such as the one in the Philippines, have advanced greatly.

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Summary Behavioral Mapping Study Female Commercial Sex Workers in Lahore, Mutan and Karachi. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan (2005)

Summary Behavioral Mapping Study Female Commercial Sex Workers in Lahore, Mutan and Karachi. National AIDS Control Program Pakistan (2005) - Pakistan although is a low prevalence in terms of HIV/AIDS, the sex industry in Pakistan is changing rapidly and becoming increasingly complicated with highly differentiated sub sectors. - The most authoritative studies available from Asia suggest that sex market is vast and the Pakistan market seems to be increasingly contributing to the markets in Middle East, Asia as well as to the demands from London, all under the cover of dancing and singing troupes.

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Determinants of Inconsistent Condom Use with Female Sex Workers among Men Attending the STD Clinic in Singapore. Wee S, Barrett ME, Lian WM (2004)

Analysis of the Situation of Children and Women in DPR Korea. UNICEF (2006) Female sex workers and their male clients have been identified as risk groups for the transmission of STDs and HIV. Behavioural interventions targeting clients need to address inconsistent condom use among them. The aim of the study is to assess the sociodemographic, behavioural, and psychological factors associated with inconsistent condom use among clients of sex workers.

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Integrated Bio-behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Female Sex Workers and Truckers along the Terai Highway Routes Covering 22 Districts of Nepal. New ERA, STD/AIDS Counseling and Training Service, FHI, et al. (2004)

Integrated Bio-behavioral Survey (IBBS) among Female Sex Workers and Truckers along the Terai Highway Routes Covering 22 Districts of Nepal. FHI and USAID (2004) An HIV/STI and behavioral risk survey of female sex workers and truckers conducted in 1999 in the Central and Eastern Terai of Nepal near the Indian border provided baseline biological and behavioral risk prevalence for a set of HIV/STI prevention interventions, which followed. FHI and six NGO partners implement behavior change interventions with FSWs and their clients including: peer communication; outreach work; condom demonstrations & free distribution; community awareness raising through events and street dramas; IEC materials distribution; condom social marketing; drop-in centers; training; and mass media for condom promotion for sexual health.

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Geographic and Social Mapping of Commercial Sex: A Manual of Procedures. East-West Center, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre and The Rockefeller Foundation (2002)

Geographic and Social Mapping of Commercial Sex: A Manual of Procedures. East-West Center, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre and The Rockefeller Foundation (2002) The importance of commercial sex to HIV transmission has been well established in many places. Because sex workers and their clients change partners frequently, they are potentially exposed to HIV at much higher rates than others in the population. As a consequence, unless precautions are taken to prevent transmission of HIV in commercial sex encounters, HIV prevalence in sex workers and their clients can grow rapidly to very high levels. However, in most countries commercial sex is illegal, often with substantial “underground” components that remain invisible to much of society.


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Mapping for the Health and Well-being of Mobile Sex Workers and the Communities They Serve: The Case of Cambodia. Hsu L and Guerny J (2002)

Mapping for the Health and Well-being of Mobile Sex Workers and the Communities They Serve:The Case of Cambodia. Hsu L and Guerny J (2002) Many efforts to help sex workers in their health problems are designed as if they always worked in the same location, whereas in many developing countries they are a highly mobile population. This results often in ineffective health services to the detriment of the sex workers. For example, they have difficulties in accessing health services or in continuing treat- ments when they change work locations.

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Controlling STI and HIV in Cambodia: The Success of Condom Promotion. WHO and National Centre for HIV/AIDS Dermatology and STD Cambodia (2001)

Controlling STI and HIV in Cambodia: The Success of Condom Promotion. WHO and National Centre for HIV/AIDS Dermatology and STD Cambodia (2001) Since the first HIV infections were detected and diagnosed in 1991, and the first AIDS cases in 1993, Cambodia has faced the rapid spread of HIV. The major route of HIV transmission in the country is heterosexual contact, especially through the use of brothels or entertainment places by males away from their families, without the protection of always using a condom in every sexual act. Starting among high-risk groups, such as brothel- based and entertainment-based sex workers, the virus has been passed to low-risk groups, such as housewives, with married clients of sex workers acting as the bridge group for HIV transmission.

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High Prevalence of Syphilis and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Sex Workers in China: Potential for Fast Spread of HIV. Hoek A, Yuliang F, Dukers N and Zhiheng C (2001)

State of World Population 2003. UNFPA (2003) In China, in the early 1980s, sexually transmitted diseases (STD) started to increase steeply. Sex workers and their clients appeared to play an important role in the spread of STD. Prostitution is illegal in China, and therefore no specific services exist for sex workers unless they are arrested and detained in re-education centres.

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HIV Prevention and Care in Sex Workers and Clients. AIDS Prevention and Care Committee and Hong Kong Advisory Council on AIDS (2001)

HIV Prevention and Care in Sex Workers and Clients. AIDS Prevention and Care Committee and Hong Kong Advisory Council on AIDS (2001) By the end of June 2001, the total cumulative number of reported cases of HIV/AIDS in Hong Kong was 1636 and 524 respectively. Heterosexual contact was the commonest route of HIV transmission in Hong Kong accounting for 56% of HIV infection and 64% of AIDS since the establishment of the local voluntary reporting system. The trend of heterosexual HIV transmission was increasing as revealed from the HIV/AIDS quarterly statistics. Among the 1,022 HIV infections reported between 1995-2000, 81.2% were reported to be sexually acquired, and 56.8% of these were through heterosexual transmission. This compared with 1985-1989 only 56% HIV infections were reported to be sexually acquired and 21% of those were through heterosexual transmission.

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National Baseline High Risk and Bridge Population Behavioural Surveillance Survey 2001 Report: Part 1- Female Sex Workers and their Clients. National AIDS Control Organisation India (2001)

National Baseline High Risk and Bridge Population Behavioural Surveillance Survey 2001 Report: Part 1- Female Sex Workers and their Clients. National AIDS Control Organisation India (2001) The key objectives of the National AIDS Control Program are the reduction of the spread of HIV infection in the country and strengthening India's response to HIV/AIDS on a long- term basis. To meet these objectives, data on the current situation in the country needs to be collected. Such information provides a backdrop for evidence based planning of strategic interventions for the control of HIV/AIDS. The impact of the interventions also needs to be periodically monitored through continuous surveillance.

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