In 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) published an interim policy on collaborative TB/HIV activities in response to demand from countries for immediate guidance on actions to decrease the dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The term interim was used because the evidence was incomplete at that time. Since then, additional evidence has been generated from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, operational research and best practices from programmatic implementation of the collaborative TB/HIV activities recommended by the policy. Furthermore, a number of TB and HIV guidelines and policy recommendations have been developed by WHO’s Stop TB and HIV/AIDS departments. Updated policy guidelines were therefore warranted to consolidate the latest available evidence and WHO recommendations on the management of HIV-related TB for national programme managers, implementers and other stakeholders.
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