Policy Brief: Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations. WHO (2014)

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This policy brief provides an overview of key findings, data and figures of the new consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations. In addition, it offers an overview of the comprehensive package on interventions and a table summarizing WHO recommendations concerning key populations.

 

Keywords: HIV, men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), sex workers, transgender, testing, treatment

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A Review of the PA-824 Patent Landscape: A Scoping Report. Amin T. (2014)

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Like delamanid, PA-824 belongs to the nitroimidazoles class of compounds and is a derivative of compound CGI-17341 whose anti-TB activity was reported as early as 1993.3 PA-824 was discovered by Patho- Genesis Corporation, which was subsequently acquired by Chiron Corporation. Novartis AG acquired Chiron Corporation in 2006.

PA-824 is a pro-drug, which requires reductive activation of an aromatic nitro group before it becomes effective against TB bacteria.4 Pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that PA-824 has potent bactericidal and sterilizing effects against DS-TB and MDR-TB. PA-824 has also been shown to be active against latent TB bacteria.

 

Keywords: TB, bacteria, orphan, drug, access

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Increasing Access to HIV Treatment in Middle-income Countries: Key Data on Prices, Regulatory Status, Tariffs and the Intellectual Property Situation. WHO. (2014)

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The paper provides information on the prices paid by 20 middle-income countries for adult and paediatric formulations of antiretroviral treatments recommended by WHO. It links this information with an analysis of the intellectual property situation of the selected medicines taking into account existing license agreements as well as compulsory licenses, and includes data and general information on a number of other determinants of prices and availability of ARVs, including tariffs, markups and taxes, as well as the regulatory status. 

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Specifications and Quantities for Efficient Procurement of Essential Equipment and Laboratory Commodities for HIV. WHO. (2014)

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WHO, with support from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), developed the present tool on specifications and quantities for efficient procurement of essential equipment and laboratory commodities for HIV.

The ultimate purpose of the tool is to facilitate the efficient procurement of laboratory equipment and laboratory commodities required to:

   - perform HIV diagnostic tests in adults, adolescent and children;
   - monitor treatment outcomes in patients on antiretroviral therapy.

Keywords: HIV infections, diagnosis, anti-retroviral agents, treatment outcome, technology medical

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A Review of the SQ-109 Patent Landscape: A Scoping Report. Amin T. (2014)

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SQ109 falls into the class of drugs known as ethylenediamines. The compound was discovered by Sequella Inc in collaboration with the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). A solid phase method was developed to synthesize more than 63 000 compounds based on the 1,2-ethylenediamine structure of ethambutol. Using a high-throughput screening assay, compounds were identified that affected genes activated during cell membrane repair by the TB bacilli.


Keywords: HIV, TB, drugs, treatment, diagnosis, access

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Patents and Licences on Antiretrovirals: A Snapshot. Burrone E and Timmermans K. (2014)

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The report provides an overview of the patent landscape with respect to a select number of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in developing countries as of April 2014. The focus is primarily on those ARVs that are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as new ARVs that have either recently obtained regulatory approval or are in phase III clinical trials.

Part 1 provides a brief introduction to patents and licences and their effect on the market for ARVs. It introduces key concepts that will facilitate an understanding of the report. It also explains which data sources were used for the report and notes a number of disclaimers with regard to the information contained in the report. Part 2 is the core of the report. It outlines the patent status and licensing status of each ARV in the 81 developing countries for which data are available. For each ARV the report indicates whether that ARV is included in fixed-dose combinations for which there may be patents. General conclusions are drawn in light of the data. The key purpose is to provide an overview of the patent landscape for each ARV and, in particular, to show in which countries market competition for a given ARV is possible in view of existing patents and licences.

 

Keywords: HIV, treatment, medicines, ART, ARV

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Joint WHO/UNAIDS Annual Consultation with Pharmaceutical Companies and Stakeholders on Forecasting Global Demand of Antiretroviral Drugs for 2013-2016. WHO. (2014)

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The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Secretariat jointly organized an annual two-day consultation with pharmaceutical companies and stakeholders to present them with the draft forecasts for the demand of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in 2013–2016.

 

Keywords: Anti-Retroviral agents, supply and distribution, HIV infections, therapy, drug industry

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Fiji Policy on Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) of HIV. Ministry Of Health- Republic of Fiji. (2014)

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Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has contributed to the reduction in the number of vertical transmission in Fiji. There has been an increasing focus on prevention of parent to child transmission (PPTCT) with the provision of HIV testing to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs). Globally and nationally we have seen PPTCT services reduce HIV infections in children.

The need for Prevention of Transmission of HIV from Parents to Child is paramount for the Ministry to achieve its targets of Zero New HIV Infections which prevents transmission of HIV from Parent to Child, and secondly to reduce maternal deaths secondary to any AIDS related Illness, which contributes to Millenium Development Goal 5 and Zero AIDS related deaths Goals by UN.

PPTCT in Fiji has come a long way since the beginning more than 10 years ago. The health facility services have changed significantly. There wasn’t treatment before for mothers who were HIV positive but since the program of PPTCT came into the picture HIV positive families are able to have children who are negative for HIV. We have seen many success stories in the country.


Keywords: counselling, testing, clinic, treatment, prevention, women

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Policy Brief - Hepatitis C and HIV: Addressing the Dual Epidemic. Treat Asia. (2014)

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HCV has been described as a “dual epidemic” with HIV because it is highly prevalent in HIV-endemic areas and it disproportionately affects vulnerable populations that also have a high risk of developing HIV infection—especially in Asia and Eastern Europe.2 HIV/HCV co-infection has emerged as an urgent public health issue that is jeopardizing the progress made in addressing the HIV epidemic.

 

Keywords: hepatitis C, HCV, treatment, testing, prevention

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Policy Brief: Transition to New HIV Treatment Regimens - Procurement and Supply Chain Management Issues. WHO. (2014)

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This policy brief provides advice on a phased approach to transitioning to new HIV treatment regimens, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The target audience includes implementing partners, antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme managers, procurement managers and other relevant parties. The ultimate purpose is to ensure a continuous supply of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, and ensure rapid and efficient implementation of the new WHO ARV guidelines, with smooth transitioning to new recommended ARV regimens, while reducing the wastage or expiry of products that are no longer recommended. 

Keywords: HIV infection, pregnant, breastfeeding, treatment, medicines

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