Patents and Licences on Antiretrovirals: A Snapshot. Burrone E and Timmermans K. (2014)

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The report provides an overview of the patent landscape with respect to a select number of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in developing countries as of April 2014. The focus is primarily on those ARVs that are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as new ARVs that have either recently obtained regulatory approval or are in phase III clinical trials.

Part 1 provides a brief introduction to patents and licences and their effect on the market for ARVs. It introduces key concepts that will facilitate an understanding of the report. It also explains which data sources were used for the report and notes a number of disclaimers with regard to the information contained in the report. Part 2 is the core of the report. It outlines the patent status and licensing status of each ARV in the 81 developing countries for which data are available. For each ARV the report indicates whether that ARV is included in fixed-dose combinations for which there may be patents. General conclusions are drawn in light of the data. The key purpose is to provide an overview of the patent landscape for each ARV and, in particular, to show in which countries market competition for a given ARV is possible in view of existing patents and licences.

 

Keywords: HIV, treatment, medicines, ART, ARV

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Fiji Policy on Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) of HIV. Ministry Of Health- Republic of Fiji. (2014)

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Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has contributed to the reduction in the number of vertical transmission in Fiji. There has been an increasing focus on prevention of parent to child transmission (PPTCT) with the provision of HIV testing to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs). Globally and nationally we have seen PPTCT services reduce HIV infections in children.

The need for Prevention of Transmission of HIV from Parents to Child is paramount for the Ministry to achieve its targets of Zero New HIV Infections which prevents transmission of HIV from Parent to Child, and secondly to reduce maternal deaths secondary to any AIDS related Illness, which contributes to Millenium Development Goal 5 and Zero AIDS related deaths Goals by UN.

PPTCT in Fiji has come a long way since the beginning more than 10 years ago. The health facility services have changed significantly. There wasn’t treatment before for mothers who were HIV positive but since the program of PPTCT came into the picture HIV positive families are able to have children who are negative for HIV. We have seen many success stories in the country.


Keywords: counselling, testing, clinic, treatment, prevention, women

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Increasing Access to HIV Treatment in Middle-income Countries: Key Data on Prices, Regulatory Status, Tariffs and the Intellectual Property Situation. WHO. (2014)

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The paper provides information on the prices paid by 20 middle-income countries for adult and paediatric formulations of antiretroviral treatments recommended by WHO. It links this information with an analysis of the intellectual property situation of the selected medicines taking into account existing license agreements as well as compulsory licenses, and includes data and general information on a number of other determinants of prices and availability of ARVs, including tariffs, markups and taxes, as well as the regulatory status. 

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Barriers to Access to PMTCT Services by Female Sex Workers. Burnet Institute Myanmar. (2014)

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The study was conducted with objectives to explore the barriers to access and utilization of PMCT services by pregnant key populations and describe the factors of not accessing PMTCT services. Because of non-availability of pregnant key populations other than FSWs for participation in the study, the study exploration focused only on the FSWs. An exploratory qualitative research design was applied where Round Table Discussions with Key Informants and Individual Depth Interviews (IDIs) with FSWs. During IDIs, short quantitative questions were also posed to this non-random sample to be able to quantify some of the key variables of interest.

 

Keywords: prevention, condom, anti-retroviral therapy (ART), unwanted pregnancy

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An Ambitious Treatment Target to Help End the AIDS Epidemic. UNAIDS. (2014)

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HIV treatment is a unique tool in the AIDS response, preventing illness and death, averting new infections and saving money. As hopes for ending the AIDS epidemic depend  in large measure on the world’s ability to provide HIV treatment to all who need it, in a rights-based approach, final targets for universal treatment access are critical.

 

Keywords: HIV, coverage, testing, antiretroviral therapy (ART), antiretroviral drugs (ARV), key populations, 90-90-90

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Patents and Licences on Antiretrovirals: A Snapshot. Burrone E and Timmermans K. (2014)

immage

The report provides an overview of the patent landscape with respect to a select number of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in developing countries as of April 2014. The focus is primarily on those ARVs that are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as new ARVs that have either recently obtained regulatory approval or are in phase III clinical trials.

Part 1 provides a brief introduction to patents and licences and their effect on the market for ARVs. It introduces key concepts that will facilitate an understanding of the report. It also explains which data sources were used for the report and notes a number of disclaimers with regard to the information contained in the report. Part 2 is the core of the report. It outlines the patent status and licensing status of each ARV in the 81 developing countries for which data are available. For each ARV the report indicates whether that ARV is included in fixed-dose combinations for which there may be patents. General conclusions are drawn in light of the data. The key purpose is to provide an overview of the patent landscape for each ARV and, in particular, to show in which countries market competition for a given ARV is possible in view of existing patents and licences.

 

Keywords: HIV, treatment, medicines, ART, ARV

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Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage. WHO. (2014)

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Universal health coverage (UHC) is at the center of current efforts to strengthen health systems and improve the level and distribution of health and health services. This document is the final report of the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage. The report addresses the key issues of fairness and equity that arise on the path to UHC. As such, the report is relevant for every actor that affects that path and governments in particular, as they are in charge of overseeing and guiding the progress toward UHC.

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Joint WHO/UNAIDS Annual Consultation with Pharmaceutical Companies and Stakeholders on Forecasting Global Demand of Antiretroviral Drugs for 2013-2016. WHO. (2014)

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The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Secretariat jointly organized an annual two-day consultation with pharmaceutical companies and stakeholders to present them with the draft forecasts for the demand of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in 2013–2016.

 

Keywords: Anti-Retroviral agents, supply and distribution, HIV infections, therapy, drug industry

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Every Newborn: An Action Plan to End Preventable Deaths. WHO and UNICEF. (2014)

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The action plan sets out a vision of a world in which there are no preventable deaths of newborns or stillbirths, where every pregnancy is wanted, every birth celebrated and women, babies and children survive, thrive and reach their full potential. Nearly 3 million lives could be saved each year if the actions in the plan are implemented and its goals and targets achieved. Based on evidence of what works, and developed within the framework for Every Woman Every Child, the plan enhances and supports coordinated, comprehensive planning and implementation of newborn specific actions within the context of national reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (RMNCAH) strategies and action plans, and in collaboration with stakeholders from the private sector, civil society, professional associations and others. The goal is to achieve equitable and high quality coverage of care for all women and newborns through links with other global and national plans, measurement and accountability.


Keywords: infant mortality, prevention and control, newborn, stillbirth, perinatal care, pregnancy outcome

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Ambitious Treatment Targets: Writing the Final Chapter of the AIDS Epidemic. UNAIDS. (2014)

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By 2020, 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status. By 2020, 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy. By 2020, 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have durable viral suppression. When these targets are achieved, at least 73% of all people living with HIV worldwide will be virally suppressed—a three-fold increase over current estimates of viral suppression. Modelling demonstrates that achieving these targets by 2020 will enable us to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

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http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/UNAIDS-2016-prevention-gap-report_en.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/UNAIDS_AIDS_by_the_numbers_2016.pdf
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http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/India_IBBS_report_2014-15.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/India_HSS_report_2014-15.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/The_negative_impact_of_drug_control_on_public_health_2015.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/2015_young_people_drugs_en.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Death_Penalty_for_Drug_Offences_Global_Overview_2015.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Transforming_our_world_2015_UN.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/WHO_Consolidated_on_the_use_of_antiretroviral_drugs_for_treating_and_preventing_HIV_infection_2016.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Consolidated_Strategic_Information_Guidelines_for_HIV_in_Health_Sector_2015.pdf
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