Ambitious Treatment Targets: Writing the Final Chapter of the AIDS Epidemic. UNAIDS. (2014)

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By 2020, 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status. By 2020, 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy. By 2020, 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have durable viral suppression. When these targets are achieved, at least 73% of all people living with HIV worldwide will be virally suppressed—a three-fold increase over current estimates of viral suppression. Modelling demonstrates that achieving these targets by 2020 will enable us to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

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A Review of the AZD5847 Patent Landscape: A Scoping Report. Amin T. (2014)

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AZD5847 belongs to the oxazolidinone class of compounds, which function as protein synthesis inhibitors and were first discovered in the mid- 1980s. Linezolid was the first compound of the oxazolidinone class to be approved for marketing and is most commonly used to treat drug-resistant TB. However, the use of linezolid has been limited by toxicity concerns, particularly haematological effects after periods of treatment over 14 days.

AZD5847 (previously referred to as AZD2563, generic name posizolid) is a modified analogue of the linezolid compound. AZD5847 was originally designed for treatment of gram-positive infections but was subsequently repurposed as an anti-TB agent. Like linezolid, AZD5847 has a bactericidal effect against mycobacterium TB in macrophages as well as in murine models of acute and chronic TB infection.


Keywords: HIV, TB, treatment, drugs

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Increasing Access to HIV Treatment in Middle-income Countries: Key Data on Prices, Regulatory Status, Tariffs and the Intellectual Property Situation. WHO. (2014)

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The paper provides information on the prices paid by 20 middle-income countries for adult and paediatric formulations of antiretroviral treatments recommended by WHO. It links this information with an analysis of the intellectual property situation of the selected medicines taking into account existing license agreements as well as compulsory licenses, and includes data and general information on a number of other determinants of prices and availability of ARVs, including tariffs, markups and taxes, as well as the regulatory status. 

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Antiretroviral Medicines in Low- and Middle-income Countries: Forecasts of Global and Regional Demand for 2013-2016. WHO. (2014)

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The global effort to scale-up HIV treatment in low- and middle-income countries continues to move closer towards achieving the goal of 15 million people receiving treatment by 2015. By the end of 2012, 9.7 million people in low- and middle-income countries were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), which represents an increase of 1.7 million from the previous year.

The goal of this report is to provide countries and suppliers with a sense of how the global market for antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in low- and middle-income countries is likely to evolve from 2013 to 2016. The report also aims to provide suppliers with a global forecast of the estimated demand for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) so that they can manage their manufacturing capacity accordingly.


Keywords: HIV, ARV, infections, therapy, drug, adults, children

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Every Newborn: An Action Plan to End Preventable Deaths. WHO and UNICEF. (2014)

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The action plan sets out a vision of a world in which there are no preventable deaths of newborns or stillbirths, where every pregnancy is wanted, every birth celebrated and women, babies and children survive, thrive and reach their full potential. Nearly 3 million lives could be saved each year if the actions in the plan are implemented and its goals and targets achieved. Based on evidence of what works, and developed within the framework for Every Woman Every Child, the plan enhances and supports coordinated, comprehensive planning and implementation of newborn specific actions within the context of national reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (RMNCAH) strategies and action plans, and in collaboration with stakeholders from the private sector, civil society, professional associations and others. The goal is to achieve equitable and high quality coverage of care for all women and newborns through links with other global and national plans, measurement and accountability.


Keywords: infant mortality, prevention and control, newborn, stillbirth, perinatal care, pregnancy outcome

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Diagnostics Access Initiative to Achieve Final HIV Treatment Targets. UNAIDS, WHO, the Clinton Health Access Initiative, et al. (2014)

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The world is uniting around a final set of treatment targets to lay the groundwork to end the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. Through national, regional and global-level consultations, diverse stakeholders are pledging to ensure that by 2020.

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A Review of the Bedaquiline Patent Landscape: A Scoping Report. Amin T. (2014)

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The patent landscape in Annex I of this report sets out the key patents and patent applications for bedaquiline, including their geographical patent coverage, as of June 2011. While every effort has been made to obtain comprehensive and accurate information on the status and geographical scope of the patents covering bedaquiline, in many countries patent information is not readily available to the public or not updated on a regular basis. In addition, some patent applications may have been published only after the searches were conducted. As such, there may be other relevant patents which have subsequently been published and which are not included in this landscape. Accordingly, the information provided herein is subject to the above disclaimers.

 

Keywords: HIV, TB, drugs, treatment, coverage

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Patents and Licences on Antiretrovirals: A Snapshot. Burrone E and Timmermans K. (2014)

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The report provides an overview of the patent landscape with respect to a select number of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in developing countries as of April 2014. The focus is primarily on those ARVs that are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as new ARVs that have either recently obtained regulatory approval or are in phase III clinical trials.

Part 1 provides a brief introduction to patents and licences and their effect on the market for ARVs. It introduces key concepts that will facilitate an understanding of the report. It also explains which data sources were used for the report and notes a number of disclaimers with regard to the information contained in the report. Part 2 is the core of the report. It outlines the patent status and licensing status of each ARV in the 81 developing countries for which data are available. For each ARV the report indicates whether that ARV is included in fixed-dose combinations for which there may be patents. General conclusions are drawn in light of the data. The key purpose is to provide an overview of the patent landscape for each ARV and, in particular, to show in which countries market competition for a given ARV is possible in view of existing patents and licences.

 

Keywords: HIV, treatment, medicines, ART, ARV

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Assessing the Impact of Alternative Patent Systems on the Cost of Health Care: The TPPA and HIV Treatment in Vietnam. Moir H V J, Tenni B, Gleeson D and Lopert R. (2014)

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In the Trans Pacific partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations, the United States has proposed expanded patent protections that will likely impact the affordability of medicines in TPPA partners. This includes antiretroviral (ARV) medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Vietnam has the lowest GDP per capita of the 12 countries participating in the TPPA negotiations. Using the current Vietnamese patent regime as our base case, we analyse the potential impact of alternative patent regimes on access to ARVs in Vietnam. The two other scenarios investigated are a patent regime making full use of TRIPS flexibilities, and a regime based on the US proposals in the 2014 leaked draft of the TPPA intellectual property chapter. Using World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines, we identified the most commonly used chemical entities and combinations used in the treatment of HIV. We examined patent data sets to discover patents that had been registered for these medicines and used information from examination of these patents to identify which might be granted under alternative patent regimes. We then drew on the empirical literature to estimate prices under the three patent scenarios. The current ARV budget was used as a constraint, with the consequence that the results focus on the impact of alternative patent regimes on access to treatment. Our results indicate 82% of the HIV population eligible for treatment would receive ARVs under a full TRIPS flexibility scenario, while only 30% of Vietnam's eligible HIV patients would have access to ARVs under the US 2014 TPPA proposals – more than halving the proportion treated compared to the current 68% receiving treatment. Similar price impacts can be expected for other countries participating in the TPPA, though these are less economically vulnerable than Vietnam.

 


Keywords: TPPA, patent policy, trade policy, access to medicines, Vietnam

 

 

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Dual Elimination of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV and Congenital Syphilis. UNITAID. (2014)

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There are more than one hundred HIV rapid tests commercially available today, all of which can be used for screening pregnant women for the virus. These tests, which are generally antibody tests, have been widely adopted, especially in resource-limited settings, where they can be used in decentralized facilities, including prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) centres, to provide same-day results to patients. In general, the technical performance of these HIV rapid tests, as reported by manufacturers, is strong. Sensitivities usually range from 99.3% to 100% and specificities range from 99.7% to 99.9%.


Keywords: HIV, syphilis, PMTCT, children, pregnant women, prevention

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