Availability of Internationally Controlled Drugs: Ensuring Adequate Access for Medical and Scientific Purposes. International Narcotics Control Board. (2016)

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The Board is presenting this special report to Member States in the hope that the analysis and recommendations presented therein may assist them in the development of national policies and control systems that are capable of achieving the goals of the international drug control conventions in relation to ensuring availability of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Member States have already underlined the importance of this issue in a number of resolutions and political declarations adopted by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. They also referred to it in the Political Declaration of the High-Level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases and in resolution WHA67.19 of the World Health Assembly, on strengthening of palliative care as a component of comprehensive care throughout the life course.

 

Keywords: HIV/AIDS, law enforcement, medicines, drug

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Focus on Happy, Healthy Babies. The Global Fund. (2015)

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All babies have the right to a healthy start in life.

 

Every year, approximately 1.5 million HIV-positive women give birth. If they are unable to access medicine and services, they run the risk of transmitting HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery and the breastfeeding period.

Now, with only one pill a day started during pregnancy, along with delivery in a medical facility by a skilled health professional and continued treatment through the breastfeeding period, advances in antenatal care mean that the risk of HIV transmission from mother to baby can be virtually eliminated.


Keywords: HIV, PMTCT, breastfeeding, children, treatment

 

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Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance. WHO. (2015)

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Antimicrobial resistance threatens the very core of modern medicine and the sustainability of an effective, global public health response to the enduring threat from infectious diseases. Systematic misuse and overuse of these drugs in human medicine and food production have put every nation at risk. Few replacement products are in the pipeline. Without harmonized and immediate action on a global scale, the world is heading towards a post-antibiotic era in which common infections could once again kill.


Keywords: awareness, prevention, medicines, diagnostic, vaccines

 

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Surveillance of HIV Drug Resistance in Adults Receiving ART (Acquired HIV Drug Resistance). WHO. (2014)

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HIV Drug Resistance emerges when HIV replicates in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. If HIV drug resistance becomes widespread, the drugs currently used to treat HIV infection may become ineffective. To date, levels of HIV Drug Resistance in countries scaling up ART remain manageable. However, resistance is slowly increasing: in East Africa, resistance rates of 10% to non-nucleoside drugs (such as nevirapine and efavirenz) have been recently described.

To maximize the long-term effectiveness of first-line ART regimens, and ensure the sustainability of ART programmes, it is essential to minimize the further spread of HIV drug resistance. Even in settings with optimal ART programme management, some degree of HIVDR is expected to emerge in populations on ART and some HIVDR is expected to be transmitted to previously uninfected individuals. Therefore, WHO recommends that HIV treatment scale-up should always be accompanied by a robust assessment of drug resistance emergence and transmission.


Keywords: HIV, ART, treatment, prevalence, clinics, adults

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Patents and Licences on Antiretrovirals: A Snapshot. Burrone E and Timmermans K. (2014)

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The report provides an overview of the patent landscape with respect to a select number of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in developing countries as of April 2014. The focus is primarily on those ARVs that are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as new ARVs that have either recently obtained regulatory approval or are in phase III clinical trials.

Part 1 provides a brief introduction to patents and licences and their effect on the market for ARVs. It introduces key concepts that will facilitate an understanding of the report. It also explains which data sources were used for the report and notes a number of disclaimers with regard to the information contained in the report. Part 2 is the core of the report. It outlines the patent status and licensing status of each ARV in the 81 developing countries for which data are available. For each ARV the report indicates whether that ARV is included in fixed-dose combinations for which there may be patents. General conclusions are drawn in light of the data. The key purpose is to provide an overview of the patent landscape for each ARV and, in particular, to show in which countries market competition for a given ARV is possible in view of existing patents and licences.

 

Keywords: HIV, treatment, medicines, ART, ARV

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Ambitious Treatment Targets: Writing the Final Chapter of the AIDS Epidemic. UNAIDS. (2014)

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By 2020, 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status. By 2020, 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy. By 2020, 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have durable viral suppression. When these targets are achieved, at least 73% of all people living with HIV worldwide will be virally suppressed—a three-fold increase over current estimates of viral suppression. Modelling demonstrates that achieving these targets by 2020 will enable us to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

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A Review of the AZD5847 Patent Landscape: A Scoping Report. Amin T. (2014)

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AZD5847 belongs to the oxazolidinone class of compounds, which function as protein synthesis inhibitors and were first discovered in the mid- 1980s. Linezolid was the first compound of the oxazolidinone class to be approved for marketing and is most commonly used to treat drug-resistant TB. However, the use of linezolid has been limited by toxicity concerns, particularly haematological effects after periods of treatment over 14 days.

AZD5847 (previously referred to as AZD2563, generic name posizolid) is a modified analogue of the linezolid compound. AZD5847 was originally designed for treatment of gram-positive infections but was subsequently repurposed as an anti-TB agent. Like linezolid, AZD5847 has a bactericidal effect against mycobacterium TB in macrophages as well as in murine models of acute and chronic TB infection.


Keywords: HIV, TB, treatment, drugs

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Enhancing the Benefits of Antiretroviral Therapy in Vietnam: Towards Ending AIDS. Kato M, Long NH, Duong BD, et al. (2014)

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Vietnam has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with the highest HIV prevalence being observed among people who inject drugs (PWID). Based on its experience scaling-up robust HIV interventions, Vietnam aims to further strengthen its response by harnessing the preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Mathematical modelling suggests that prioritizing key populations for earlier access to ART, combined with other prevention interventions, may have significant impact on the epidemic, cost-effectively reducing new HIV infections and deaths. Pilot studies are being conducted to assess feasibility and acceptability of expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and early ART among key populations and to demonstrate innovative service delivery models to address challenges in uptake of services across the care cascade. Earlier access of key populations to combination prevention interventions, combined with sustained political commitment and supportive environment for key populations, are essential for maximum impact of ART on the HIV epidemic in Vietnam. 

 

Keywords: Antiretroviral therapy, HIV prevention, Concentrated epidemic, Vietnam, People who inject drugs 

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Diagnostics Access Initiative to Achieve Final HIV Treatment Targets. UNAIDS, WHO, the Clinton Health Access Initiative, et al. (2014)

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The world is uniting around a final set of treatment targets to lay the groundwork to end the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. Through national, regional and global-level consultations, diverse stakeholders are pledging to ensure that by 2020.

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A Review of the Bedaquiline Patent Landscape: A Scoping Report. Amin T. (2014)

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The patent landscape in Annex I of this report sets out the key patents and patent applications for bedaquiline, including their geographical patent coverage, as of June 2011. While every effort has been made to obtain comprehensive and accurate information on the status and geographical scope of the patents covering bedaquiline, in many countries patent information is not readily available to the public or not updated on a regular basis. In addition, some patent applications may have been published only after the searches were conducted. As such, there may be other relevant patents which have subsequently been published and which are not included in this landscape. Accordingly, the information provided herein is subject to the above disclaimers.

 

Keywords: HIV, TB, drugs, treatment, coverage

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