A Review of the Sutezolid (PNU-100480) Patent Landscape: A Scoping Report. Amin T. (2014)

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Sutezolid belongs to the oxazolidinone class of compounds, which function as protein synthesis inhibitors and were first discovered in the mid-1980s.3 Linezolid was the first compound of the oxazolidinone class to be approved for treatment of TB. It is most commonly used to treat drug-resistant TB.4 However, linezolid’s use has been limited by toxicity concerns, particularly haematological effects after periods of treatment over 14 days.


Keywords: TB, treatment, diagnosis, therapy, medicines

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Assessing the Impact of Alternative Patent Systems on the Cost of Health Care: The TPPA and HIV Treatment in Vietnam. Moir H V J, Tenni B, Gleeson D and Lopert R. (2014)

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In the Trans Pacific partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations, the United States has proposed expanded patent protections that will likely impact the affordability of medicines in TPPA partners. This includes antiretroviral (ARV) medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Vietnam has the lowest GDP per capita of the 12 countries participating in the TPPA negotiations. Using the current Vietnamese patent regime as our base case, we analyse the potential impact of alternative patent regimes on access to ARVs in Vietnam. The two other scenarios investigated are a patent regime making full use of TRIPS flexibilities, and a regime based on the US proposals in the 2014 leaked draft of the TPPA intellectual property chapter. Using World Health Organization (WHO) treatment guidelines, we identified the most commonly used chemical entities and combinations used in the treatment of HIV. We examined patent data sets to discover patents that had been registered for these medicines and used information from examination of these patents to identify which might be granted under alternative patent regimes. We then drew on the empirical literature to estimate prices under the three patent scenarios. The current ARV budget was used as a constraint, with the consequence that the results focus on the impact of alternative patent regimes on access to treatment. Our results indicate 82% of the HIV population eligible for treatment would receive ARVs under a full TRIPS flexibility scenario, while only 30% of Vietnam's eligible HIV patients would have access to ARVs under the US 2014 TPPA proposals – more than halving the proportion treated compared to the current 68% receiving treatment. Similar price impacts can be expected for other countries participating in the TPPA, though these are less economically vulnerable than Vietnam.

 


Keywords: TPPA, patent policy, trade policy, access to medicines, Vietnam

 

 

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March 2014 Supplement to the 2013 Consolidated Guidelines on the Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV Infection. WHO. (2014)

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WHO guidelines on the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection provide a public health approach for scaling up HIV care and treatment programmes and focus on simplified, harmonized and effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens for use in resource-limited settings. In 2013, for the first time, WHO revised and combined guidelines for adults and adolescents, infants and children and pregnant women as well as other ARV-related guidance documents into one set of consolidated guidelines that addressed the use of ARV drugs for HIV treatment and prevention across all age groups and populations, based on the broad continuum of HIV care.

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Policy Brief - Hepatitis C and HIV: Addressing the Dual Epidemic. Treat Asia. (2014)

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HCV has been described as a “dual epidemic” with HIV because it is highly prevalent in HIV-endemic areas and it disproportionately affects vulnerable populations that also have a high risk of developing HIV infection—especially in Asia and Eastern Europe.2 HIV/HCV co-infection has emerged as an urgent public health issue that is jeopardizing the progress made in addressing the HIV epidemic.

 

Keywords: hepatitis C, HCV, treatment, testing, prevention

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HEADLIGHT : Understanding WHO’s Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations. APCOM. (2014)

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The Guidelines aim to support countries provide more effective and comprehensive HIV services for the key populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people and include discussion of specific issues relating to adolescent key populations. Although, there is still a lack of evidence to support recommendation of PrEP to transgender women. In this brief we highlight the recommendations made in the Guidelines that are most relevant to MSM and transgender people. 

 


Keywords: HIV, key populations, MSM, transgender, adolescents, PrEP, ART, VMMC, HTC, TB

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The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: Implications for Access to Medicines and Public Health. Bhardwaj K and Oh C. (2014)

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The objective of this report is to provide an analysis of the provisions in the proposed TPPA in order to obtain a clearer understanding of their implications. It is hoped that the report will also be a useful resource for other stakeholders in the public health field.

The report analyses the key negotiating issues in the USA’s proposals (widely considered to be the basic negotiation text for the TPPA) which are likely to have an impact on access to medicines and public health.


Keywords: HIV, health, access, medicines, financing, 

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Access to Antiretroviral Drugs in Low- and Middle-income Countries. WHO. (2014)

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This report has been compiled using country-level data reported to WHO on the procurement of ART via the Global Procurement Reporting Mechanism (GPRM), the WHO database on the regulatory status of ART, reports on the production capacity for the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) of ARVs, the annual WHO surveys on the use of ART, the Global AIDS Response Progress Report data, the Global Update on the Health Sector Response to HIV 2014, as well as contributions from countries and major stakeholders involved in ART access.

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Ambitious Treatment Targets: Writing the Final Chapter of the AIDS Epidemic. UNAIDS. (2014)

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By 2020, 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status. By 2020, 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy. By 2020, 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have durable viral suppression. When these targets are achieved, at least 73% of all people living with HIV worldwide will be virally suppressed—a three-fold increase over current estimates of viral suppression. Modelling demonstrates that achieving these targets by 2020 will enable us to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

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An Ambitious Treatment Target to Help End the AIDS Epidemic. UNAIDS. (2014)

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HIV treatment is a unique tool in the AIDS response, preventing illness and death, averting new infections and saving money. As hopes for ending the AIDS epidemic depend  in large measure on the world’s ability to provide HIV treatment to all who need it, in a rights-based approach, final targets for universal treatment access are critical.

 

Keywords: HIV, coverage, testing, antiretroviral therapy (ART), antiretroviral drugs (ARV), key populations, 90-90-90

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Challenges and Potential Barriers to the Uptake of Antiretroviral-based Prevention in Asia and the Pacific Region. Lo YR, Kato M, Phanuphak N, et al (2014)

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Evidence has emerged over the past few years on the effectiveness of antiretroviral-based prevention technologies to prevent (i) HIV transmission while decreasing morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected persons, and (ii) HIV acquisition in HIV-uninfected individuals through pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Only few of the planned studies on treatment as prevention (TasP) are conducted in Asia. TasP might be more feasible and effective in concentrated rather than in generalised epidemics, as resources for HIV testing and antiretroviral treatment could focus on confined and much smaller populations than in the generalised epidemics observed in sub-Saharan Africa. Several countries such as Cambodia, China, Thailand and Vietnam, are now paving the way to success. Similar challenges arise for both TasP and PrEP. However, the operational issues for PrEP are amplified by the need for frequent retesting and ensuring adherence. This paper describes challenges for the implementation of antiretroviral-based prevention and makes the case that TasP and PrEP implementation research in Asia is much needed to provide insights into the feasibility of these interventions in populations where firm evidence of 'real world' effectiveness is still lacking. 

 

Keywords: Cambodia, China, pre-exposure prophylaxis, Thailand, treatment as prevention, Vietnam

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