India: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. WHO (2005)

India: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. WHO (2005) India’s population surpassed 1 billion in 2001; 67% live in rural areas and 33% in urban areas. India is estimated to have the second largest population of people living with HIV/AIDS, next to South Africa. An estimated 5.13 million individuals currently live with HIV across all states in India. In areas that are more severely affected, the epidemic has started to challenge recent development achievements and to raise fundamental issues of human rights concerning people living with HIV/AIDS.


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HIV/AIDS Epidemic in India: Risk Factors, Risk Behavior & Strategies for Prevention & Control. Godbole S and Mehendale S (2005)

HIV/AIDS Epidemic in India: Risk Factors, Risk Behavior & Strategies for Prevention & Control. Godbole S and Mehendale S (2005) Since the first report of HIV infection in India in 1986, the virus has spread all over the country although there is geographic variation. There are estimated 5.1 million people infected with HIV with an overall estimated adult prevalence below 1 per cent. Surveys carried out in different sub-populations have yielded prevalence estimates, but data on HIV incidence are limited. Both HIV serotypes 1 and 2 exist in India and HIV-1 C is the commonest subtype reported. Sexual transmission of HIV is most predominant. Spread of HIV in intravenous drug use settings is localized mostly in the north eastern region and metropolitan cities and parent to child transmission is on the rise.

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Papua New Guinea: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale Up. WHO (2005)

Papua New Guinea: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale Up. WHO (2005) The first case of HIV infection in Papua New Guinea was detected in 1987. By June 2005, 12 341 people had been reported to be living with HIV/AIDS. The country is facing a generalized epidemic with rapidly increasing prevalence in a difficult socioeconomic context. A national epidemiological consensus meeting in November 2004 estimated an average prevalence rate of 1.7%, and between 25 000 and 69 000 people with 15-49 years were living with HIV/AIDS. Prevalence rates among women attending antenatal care services are estimated to vary between 1% and 4%. Available data suggests that the epidemic is predominantly transmitted through heterosexual contact (84%), fuelled by high-risk behaviour including widespread commercial and casual sex. Approximately 93.1% of current reported cases are adults.

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Project Performance Assessment Report Indonesia: Indonesia HIV/AIDS and STDs Prevention and Management Project. The World Bank (2005)

Project Performance Assessment Report Indonesia: Indonesia HIV/AIDS and STDs Prevention and Management Project. The World Bank (2005) The Operations Evaluation Department assesses the programs and activities of the World Bank for two purposes: first, to ensure the integrity of the Bank’s self-evaluation process and to verify that the Bank’s work is producing the expected results, and second, to help develop improved directions, policies, and procedures through the dissemination of lessons drawn from experience. As part of this work, OED annually assesses about 25 percent of the Bank’s lending operations.


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Vietnam: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. WHO (2005)

Vietnam: Summary Country Profile for HIV/AIDS Treatment Scale-Up. WHO (2005) Viet Nam is facing a rapidly growing HIV epidemic that is beginning to extend beyond initial concentrations in networks of injecting drug users and sex workers. The number of people living with HIV doubled between 2000 and 2005, from approximately 122 000 to 263 000. The adult HIV prevalence is estimated to be 0.5% at the national level in 2005 but exceeded 1% in several provinces. There were an estimated 37 000 new infections in 2005. Due to increased heterosexual transmission, the number of infected females compared with males is increasing each year. In 2005, the ratio was estimated to be 2 to 1, males to females. The number of AIDS-related deaths is growing and is estimated to have increased from 9000 in 2003 to 14 000 in 2005.

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Scaling Up Anti-Retroviral Treatment to (Injecting) Drug Users in Asia. Asian Harm Reduction Network (2005)

Scaling Up Anti-Retroviral Treatment to (Injecting) Drug Users in Asia. Asian Harm Reduction Network (2005) In light of the endorsement of the AIDS Care Watch Campaign, led by Health and Development Networks (HDN), the Asian Harm Reduction Network (AHRN) believes that addressing issues related to injecting drug use (IDU) and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) is essential in the Asian context. Notably, AHRN believes that the provision of ART for IDUs is a fairly recent area which has not received due attention and deserves more research and consideration.

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Guidelines for HIV Diagnosis and Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy. WHO (2005)

Guidelines for HIV Diagnosis and Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy. WHO (2005) The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has changed the social, moral, economic and health fabric of the world in a short span. Today HIV/AIDS is the greatest health crisis faced by the global community. Till date, this pandemic has killed nearly 30 million people. More than 40 million are living with HIV, and to this pool, an additional 14 000 are added everyday. It is expected that, if not treated, 3 million people will die every year of HIV/AIDS. It is estimated that of the millions of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in developing countries, 6 million people require antiretroviral therapy (ART). Most of these are in 34 high burden countries of Africa and Asia.

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“3 by 5” Progress Report 2004. UNAIDS and WHO (2005)

“3 by 5” Progress Report 2004. UNAIDS and WHO (2005) In the second half of 2004, the number of people on antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in developing and transitional countries increased dramatically from 440 000 to an estimated 700 000. This figure represents about 12% of the approximately 5.8 million people currently needing treatment in developing and transitional countries and includes people receiving ARV therapy supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the World Bank and other partners.

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Standard Operating Procedures for Antiretroviral Therapy. FHI-Impact and USAID (2005)

Standard Operating Procedures for Antiretroviral Therapy. FHI, Impact and USAID (2005) With significant reduction in the cost of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has become increasingly real for people in low-resource settings. In many countries, governments have developed national guidelines on ART management to define care standards and establish protocols for such areas as eligibility criteria, drug regimens and monitoring HIV-infected clients on ART.

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HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care in Viet Nam: Lessons Learned from the FHI/IMPACT Project. FHI (2004)

HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care in Viet Nam: Lessons Learned from the FHI/IMPACT Project. FHI (2004) Since the first HIV infection was reported in Viet Nam in December 1990, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has marched relentlessly onward to reach every province and thousands of communes throughout the country and at a pace that has become increasingly difficult for the government of Viet Nam to cope with effectively. As of December 2003 over 75,000 people in Viet Nam were reported to be HIV+, but the true number is likely to be three or more times higher.

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