Ethics Guidance for the Implementation of the TB Strategy. WHO. (2017)

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The World Health Organization End TB Strategy is fully aligned with the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Both require due attention to equity, human rights and ethics. In fact, “protecting human rights, ethics and equity” is one of the four key principles of the WHO End TB Strategy. The SDG agenda itself is inspired by a simple motto: “Leave no one behind”. Ensuring that these essential principles guide the implementation of the End TB Strategy is a must, especially when tuberculosis (TB) is rampant among the most vulnerable and marginalized populations everywhere in the world.


Keywords: human rights, care and prevention, treatment, children, prisoners, migrants, health care

 

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Infographic Tuberculosis and HIV. UNAIDS. (2017)

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UNAIDS calls for the elimination of TB deaths among people living with HIV and for health systems to be strengthened and services integrated to allow for a more rapid scale-up of HIV and TB programming. Countries must expand HIV prevention and treatment programmes that include regular TB screening, preventive therapy and early treatment, since they are simple, affordable and effective programmes that prevent TB deaths.


Keywords: HIV, AIDS, TB, PLHIV, death, children

 

 

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Mobile Populations: Stop TB Key Populations Brief. Stop TB Partnership. (2016)

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Despite numerous international treaties and commitments to protect the health rights of migrants, this population still faces significant barriers in their access to TB care. Migration, which is driven by a number of complex economic, social, political and environmental factors, is a determinant of ill health, and the health outcomes of migrants are impacted by the various dimensions of the migration process.


Keywords: TB, migrants, health care, language barriers, stigma, treatment

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Chest Radiography in Tuberculosis Detection – Summary of Current WHO Recommendations and Guidance on Programmatic Approaches. WHO. (2016)

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The World Health Organization (WHO) has released a consolidated summary of WHO recommendations on the use chest radiography (CXR) in TB detection and guidance on programmatic approaches to use CXR within primary care services. CXR is an essential tool for the early detection of TB, and therefore fundamental to achieve the targets set out in WHO’s End TB Strategy. The document also describes new technological developments in CXR, such as computer aided detection of TB (CAD) that holds promise for future use but needs to be further evaluated before WHO guidance is developed.
 


Keywords: TB, chest X-ray (CXR), care and prevention


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People who Use Drugs: Stop TB Key Populations Brief. Stop TB Partnership. (2016)

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Globally, people who use drugs (PWUD) remain stigmatized and criminalized, which contributes to devastating health disparities, including extremely high rates of TB often combined with HIV and viral hepatitis. The range of these health issues and the prevailing lack of integrated health services capable of delivering TB, HIV, and harm reduction services in one place largely contribute to the scope of the TB crisis in communities of PWUD.


Keywords: TB, PWUD, HIV, advocacy, community, laws, policy, criminalization, treatment, stigma

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Key Populations Brief: Health Care Workers. Stop TB Partnership. (2016)

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Health care workers (HCWs) are at an increased risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) compared to the general population. In low-resource, high-TB-burden settings, occupationally acquired TB is depleting the very workforce fighting the disease on the frontline. Failures in health systems, occupational health (OH) services and TB infection control (TBIC), staffing shortages, supply issues, lack of funding, and lack of supervision, are putting the lives of HCWs, their families, and those they are tasked with caring for at risk. The fear of stigma, coupled with weak labour protections and poor confidentiality measures, often means that HCWs are afraid to disclose their health status to employers for fear of being ostracized or losing their jobs.

 

Keywords: HIV, health services, treatment, stigma, policy

 

 

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Prisoners: Stop TB Key Populations Brief. Stop TB Partnership. (2016)

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Over the past several decades, the weakening of criminal justice systems and reliance on ineffective, overly punitive policies have led to the deterioration of prisons globally. This has caused overcrowding and facilitated the spread of infectious diseases such as TB and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Prisons are intrinsically linked to communities; thus, the TB and MDR-TB epidemics in prisons have impacted health outcomes in countries where excessive incarceration is prevalent.


Keywords: TB, HIV prevalence, treatment, drugs, laws, policy, human rights, diagnosis

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Key Populations Brief: People Living with HIV. Stop TB Partnership. (2016)

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While HIV-induced immunosuppression makes people living with HIV (PLHIV) extremely vulnerable to TB, stigma, absence of precise point-of-care diagnostics, and poor integration of TB and HIV services make TB particularly deadly for this population. Along with stigma, other factors such as gender, poverty and malnutrition promote delays in diagnosis, present barriers to treatment, and impact patients’ adherence to medications.

 


Keywords: HIV, PLHIV, treatment, care, human rights, stigma and discrimination

 

 

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Rural Populations: Stop TB Key Populations Brief. Stop TB Partnership. (2016)

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Global statistics indicate that the TB burden is more acute in urban areas. However, in countries where large portions of the population are rurally located and reside in extreme poverty, TB is dominant among rural dwellers. Poverty and limited access to health facilities and health workers significantly diminish the ability of people with TB who reside in rural areas to obtain timely diagnosis and treatment.


Keywords: TB, diagnosis, treatment, health care, health facilities

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Urban Populations: Stop TB Key Populations Brief. Stop TB Partnership. (2016)

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Globally, the prevalence of TB is much higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Around 54% of the world’s population now lives in cities, with the most rapid rates of urbanization being witnessed in developing countries. In the developed world, urbanization has led to overall improvements in health, but this trend has not been mirrored in less-developed regions of the world. In these settings, the key social and economic determinants of TB converge on the poorest populations.


Keywords: TB, treatment, stigma, discrimination, gender, health services 

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