Agenda in Transition: Advancing Actions to Secure the Health and Rights of Transgender People in Asia and the Pacific. APTN. (2014)

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Transgender people in Asia and the Pacific face many challenges in claiming their rights in general, and specifically their right to health care. Through capacity building the transgender community can be empowered to promote transgender-positive attitudes and advocate for competent, comprehensive and accessible health services.

 

In order to identify priority actions for the health and rights of transgender people in Asia and the Pacific, the Agenda in Transition regional community consultation was held in Bangkok, Thailand, on 19-20 February 2014. This event brought together diverse members of the transgender community; UN agencies, civil society organizations, donors and other partners to review the current situation for the region’s transgender people and determine those needs, which require accelerated action.

 

Keywords: HIV, stigma, discrimination, human rights, legal, gender, health, community

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Annual Report 2013-2014. UN Women. (2014)

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The Annual Report documents UN Women’s work to foster women’s empowerment and gender equality around the world. It highlights some of the organization’s initiatives during the year and provides summary financial statements, a list of new programmes and projects, and contact information.

 


Keywords: HIV, violence, women, girls, rights, gender

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Behind the Silence - Violence Against Women and Their Resilience Myanmar. Gender Equality Network. (2014)

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Violence against women is a serious and reprehensible human rights violation that directly and indirectly affects the health, livelihood and opportunities of women in Myanmar. Civil society actors, government authorities and international agencies increasingly recognize the extent and scope of this issue across the country. However, there has been little rigorous research conducted on this topic among women in Myanmar's general population. This qualitative study on violence against women helps to fill the gap on what is known about women's experiences of abuse and violence by their husband and other men. This briefing paper provides a summary of the research finding from the full report.


Keywords: intimate partner, sexual harassment, abuse, rape

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Bullying Targeting Secondary School Students who are or are Perceived to be Transgender or Same-sex Attracted. Mahidol University, Plan International Thailand, UNESCO, et al. (2014)

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In particular, students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) tend to be disproportionately bullied at schools (UNESCO, 2012). In many Western and Asian contexts, over half of LGBT students report having been bullied because of their same-sex attraction or because of their transgender expressions (Takács, 2006; Khan et al., 2005). Thailand is often perceived as very accepting of sexual/gender diversity, but in fact LGBT people are usually only tolerated, not accepted (Jackson, 1999). There was previous evidence of school bullying in Thailand (Sombat Tapanya, 2006), but only anecdotal evidence pointed at the presence of school bullying specifically targeting students who are or are perceived to be LGBT, or on mechanisms to counter it in Thai schools.


Keywords: students, lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender people, bullying, abuse

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Cambodia Country Programme Brief on Violence Against Women. UNFPA Cambodia. (2014)

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Violence against women is a human rights issue with significant social and public health implications. Effective prevention of violence against women (VAW) and quality services for survivors depend on a clear understanding of the prevalence of violence and its dynamics.


Keywords: human rights, public health, gender, domestic violence 

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Examining Violence against Women in Situations of Human Trafficking in South-East Asia. Nguyen H. (2014)

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Human trafficking is a form of violence against women (VAW) that occurs within and across borders. It involves many different actors, including families, local brokers, international criminal networks and immigration authorities, and in many cases it leads to a form of modern day slavery for the victim. Human trafficking affects the economy, political stability, law enforcement, women’s rights and public health, particularly reproductive health and sexual health. Trafficking victims are also placed at greater risk of contracting HIV/AIDS.

 

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, women, girls, gender based violence, human rights

 

 

 

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Federated States of Micronesia Family Health and Safety Study - A Prevalence Study on Violence against Women. Leon C and Mori ES. (2014)

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The FSM Family Health and Safety Study (FHSS) aimed to gauge the prevalence and types of violence against women (VAW) in the FSM. The study also sought to document the associations between partner violence and the wellbeing of the woman and her children, as well as to identify risk and protective factors for partner violence. The FSM Department of Health and Social Affairs (DHSA) carried out the study with financial support from the Australian Government’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) and with financial and technical support from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).

 


Keywords: women, sexual violence, gender, reproductive health, children

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Handbook on Effective Prosecution Responses to Violence against Women and Girls. UNODC and UN Women. (2014)

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Drawing upon the recommendations and guidance contained in the updated Model Strategies and Practical Measures, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and UN Women, in cooperation with Thailand Institute of Justice, have drafted the Handbook on Effective Prosecution Responses to Violence against Women and Girls with a view to assist prosecutors in their duty to uphold the rule of law, firmly protect human rights and serve their community with impartiality and fairness in cases involving violence against women and girls.

 


Keywords: women, girls, gender-based violence, laws

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Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Infection among Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Li Y et al. Journal of the International AIDS Society. (2014)

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Introduction: To assess evidence of an association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV infection among women.

 

Methods: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, EBSCO, Ovid, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group’s Specialized Register and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to 20 May 2013 to identify studies that examined the association between IPV and HIV infection in women. We included studies on women aged ≥15 years, in any form of sexually intimate relationship with a male partner.

 

Results: Twenty-eight studies [(19 cross-sectional, 5 cohorts and 4 case-control studies) involving 331,468 individuals in 16 countries – the US (eight studies), South Africa (four studies), East Africa (10 studies), India (three studies), Brazil (one study) and multiple low-income countries (two studies)] were included. Results were pooled using RevMan 5.0. To moderate effect estimates, we analyzed all data using the random effects model, irrespective of heterogeneity level. Pooled results of cohort studies indicated that physical IPV [pooled RR (95% CI): 1.22 (1.01, 1.46)] and any type of IPV [pooled RR (95% CI): 1.28 (1.00, 1.64)] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Results of cross-sectional studies demonstrated significant associations of physical IPV with HIV infection among women [pooled OR (95% CI): 1.44 (1.10, 1.87)]. Similarly, results of cross-sectional studies indicated that combination of physical and sexual IPV [pooled OR (95% CI): 2.00 (1.24, 3.22) and any type of IPV [pooled OR (95% CI): 1.41 (1.16, 1.73)] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women.

 

Conclusions: Available evidence suggests a moderate statistically significant association between IPV and HIV infection among women. To further elucidate the strength of the association between IPV and HIV infection among women, there is a need for high-quality follow-up studies conducted in different geographical regions of the world, and among individuals of diverse racial/cultural backgrounds and varying levels of HIV risks.

 

Keywords: intimate partner violence; women’s health; systematic review; meta-analysis; gender-based violence; HIV/AIDS.

 

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LGBT-friendly Thailand? A Brief on School Bullying on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. UNESCO. (2014)

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Thailand is often perceived by both foreigners and some of its own population as very accepting of sexual and gender diversity; however some research suggests that Thai society is “tolerant but unaccepting” toward LGBT individuals. Previous studies were conducted on school bullying in Thailand, but only anecdotal evidence revealed the presence of targeted violence toward LGBT students due to their sexual orientation and/or gender identity.

This study aimed to fill this gap in evidence, and to identify policy and programme implications.

 

Keywords: bully, school, education, transgender, sexual diversity, gender, stigma, discrimination, violence

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