Migration and HIV. Swasti. (2014)

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Being a migrant is not a risk factor in itself, but poorer health and higher HIV vulnerability among migrants are explained by: discrimination, gender inequality, sexual violence and exploitation, dangerous working environments, poor living conditions, poor access to education and social services and, most importantly, poor access to health care. Migrants often lack access to mainstream health care, education and social services. Many migrants do not have legal status within their destination countries and live in isolation, making it difficult to protect themselves against the people who might exploit them or sexually abuse them. Social isolation and other factors may lead migrants to participate in high-risk behavior, including use of drugs and alcohol. Male migrants away from home may also pay for sex, while the female migrants might look to sex work when they need extra money and have no social network to support them. All of these situations and activities increase migrants’ vulnerability to HIV infection. 

 

Keywords: HIV, Asia-Pacific, migrant, discrimination, violence, gender, health care

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Migration, Health and Dignity in South Asia: Lessons from the EMPHASIS Project on Migration, Women’s Empowerment and HIV in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Walker D, Bohidar N and Devkota P. (2014)

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In essence, the goal of the project was to reduce the vulnerability of mobile populations, particularly women, to HIV infection across selected cross-border zones in India, Bangladesh and Nepal. The core impact populations were Bengali-speaking and Nepalese migrants between the ages of 15 and 49. This report explores the project and the lessons it offers for both implementation and outcomes. It focuses, in particular, on women’s empowerment and safe migration, as these are the two areas that emerged as cross-cutting themes that had a major impact on the agency of women who were, in turn, catalysts for change over the five years of the project.

 

Keywords: HIV, migration, women, migrant workers, cross-border

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Myanmar Policy Brief: Health, HIV and Labour Migration in the GMS (Burmese). ADB, JUNIMA and UNDP. (2014)

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Myanmar is the largest source country for migration in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), with Thailand as the primary destination. In 2011 some 1,154,400 migrants from Myanmar were registered in Thailand, with estimates of more than 1.5 million unregistered migrants, and an additional 130,000 Burmese refugees in the Thai border areas.

 

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Myanmar Policy Brief: Health, HIV and Labour Migration in the GMS. ADB, JUNIMA and UNDP. (2014)

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Myanmar is the largest source country for migration in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), with Thailand as the primary destination. In 2011 some 1,154,400 migrants from Myanmar were registered in Thailand, with estimates of more than 1.5 million unregistered migrants, and an additional 130,000 Burmese refugees in the Thai border areas.

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Regional CSO Collaboration on HIV/AIDS for Mobile Populations. Raks Thai Foundation and ADB. (2014)

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The meeting was attended by 46 representatives from 30 CSOs of GMS countries, including Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Thailand, and international organizations such as Care International, IOM, and UN agencies and ADB. During the three-day meeting, participants had good opportunity to learn and share information about their roles, activities, and experience working with mobile populations on health, both within countries and along the border zones. This summary provides key outputs of the meeting more detail is provided in the full report.

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Thailand Policy Brief: Health, HIV and Labour Migration in the GMS (Thai). ADB, JUNIMA and UNDP. (2014)

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Thailand is the main destination country for 60 percent of migrants in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), with 1.48 million registered migrants from Myanmar (78.6 percent), Cambodia (10.9 percent), and Lao PDR (10.5 percent) in 2011.

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Thailand Policy Brief: Health, HIV and Labour Migration in the GMS. ADB, JUNIMA and UNDP. (2014)

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Thailand is the main destination country for 60 percent of migrants in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), with 1.48 million registered migrants from Myanmar (78.6 percent), Cambodia (10.9 percent), and Lao PDR (10.5 percent) in 2011.

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The Effects of an HIV and AIDS Project on Migrants at Source and Destination Sites in Nepal, Bangladesh and India: Findings from a Quasi-experimental Study. Samuels F, Nino-Zarazua M, Sultana MM, et al. (2014)

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While mobility itself is not seen as vulnerability factor for HIV infection, the unsafe conditions under which people migrate exposes them to a greater risk of infection. Not only do policies and programmes in receiving or host countries hinder migrants from accessing health and social services, but cultural factors and their legal status may contribute to the discrimination they face and act as a further barrier to accessing services. Difficult working conditions, loneliness and feelings of powerlessness, together with peer pressure, may lead migrants to engage in risky sexual behaviours that leave them vulnerable to HIV and AIDS.

 

Keywords: HIV, migrants, spouses, partners, knowledge, awareness

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Viet Nam Policy Brief: Health, HIV and Labour Migration in the GMS (Vietnamese). ADB, JUNIMA and UNDP. (2014)

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Viet Nam is a source country for labour migration with extensive outmigration for Vietnamese workers to countries in Asia and worldwide, actively supported by the Vietnamese Government as a key economic development strategy. Within the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), Vietnamese migration is largely irregular.

 

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Viet Nam Policy Brief: Health, HIV and Labour Migration in the GMS. ADB, JUNIMA and UNDP. (2014)

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Viet Nam is a source country for labour migration with extensive outmigration for Vietnamese workers to countries in Asia and worldwide, actively supported by the Vietnamese Government as a key economic development strategy. Within the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), Vietnamese migration is largely irregular.

 

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http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/UNAIDS_methods_for_deriving_estimates_2016.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/UNAIDS_Global_AIDS_Response_Progress_Reporting_2016.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/2015_Size_Estimation_of_Key_Affected_Populations_in_Philippines.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Assessment_of_Decentralization_of_ART_in_MMR_2016.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/UNAIDS-2016-prevention-gap-report_en.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/UNAIDS_AIDS_by_the_numbers_2016.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/UNAIDS_Biomedical_AIDS_research_2016.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Implementing_comprehensive_HIV_and_STI_programmes_with_transgender_people_2016.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/UNAIDS_cities_ending_the_aids_epidemic_2016.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Philippines_2015_IHBSS_Factsheets.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Pakistan_IBBS_Report_Punjab_2014_0.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/WHO_Integrating_collaborative_TB_and_HIV_services_within_a_comprehensive_package_of_care_for_PWID_2016.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/India_IBBS_report_2014-15.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/India_HSS_report_2014-15.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/The_negative_impact_of_drug_control_on_public_health_2015.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/2015_young_people_drugs_en.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Death_Penalty_for_Drug_Offences_Global_Overview_2015.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Transforming_our_world_2015_UN.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/WHO_Consolidated_on_the_use_of_antiretroviral_drugs_for_treating_and_preventing_HIV_infection_2016.pdf
http://aidsdatahub.org/sites/default/files/highlight-reference/document/Consolidated_Strategic_Information_Guidelines_for_HIV_in_Health_Sector_2015.pdf
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