Marrying Too Young - End Child Marriage. UNFPA. (2012)

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Child marriage is a human rights abuse. It constitutes a grave threat to young girls’ lives, health and future prospects. Marriage for girls can lead to complications related to pregnancy and childbirth, and in developing countries these are the main causes of death among 15–19 year-old girls. Girls who are married are also exposed to sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. For a girl, marriage can mean the end of her education, can set aside her chances of a vocation or career, and can steal from her foundational life choices.

 

Keywords: human rights, laws, girls, health services, education

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The State of the World’s Children 2011: Adolescence an Age of Opportunity. UNICEF (2011)

The State of the World’s Children 2011: Adolescence an Age of Opportunity. UNICEF (2011) Adolescence is an age of opportunity for children, and a pivotal time for us to build on their development in the first decade of life, to help them navigate risks and vulnerabilities, and to set them on the path to fulfilling their potential.

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Towards Eliminating New HIV Infections in Children and Congenital Syphilis in Asia-Pacific: The 8th Meeting of the Asia-Pacific UN Task Force for the Prevention of Parents-to-Child Transmission of HIV. UNICEF (2011)

Towards eliminating new HIV infections in children and congenital syphilis in Asia-Pacific: The 8th Meeting of the Asia-Pacific UN Task Force for the Prevention of Parents-to-Child Transmission of HIV. UNICEF (2011)

This document is also known as the 2011 Lao PPTCT Task Force Meeting report.

Prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) coverage in the region has increased steadily, albeit slowly, from 9 per cent in 2004 to 32 per cent in 2009, with Thailand surpassing 90 per cent. For other countries, coverage ranges from 3 per cent in Nepal to 55 per cent in Myanmar. Region-wide, the impact of PMTCT services preventing children from acquiring HIV are not yet clearly determined (8th Asia-Pacific UN PPTCT Task Force Meeting Concept Note).


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Vulnerability of Bangladeshi street-children to HIV/AIDS: A Situation Analysis. Uddin J, Sarma H, Nahar Q, et al. (2011)

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The overall objective of the research was to analyze the vulnerability of street-children to HIV/AIDS in Dhaka city. The specific aims were to:

a. Determine the range of experiences and behaviours of street-children that put them at risk of HIV/AIDS and

b. Compare the vulnerability of different groups of street-children [living in the street without family (abandoned), living in the street with family, and working in the street and returning to the family at night—both males and females].

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Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Infants and Children: Towards Universal Access Recommendations for a Public Health Approach 2010 Revision. WHO (2010)

Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Infants and Children: Towards Universal Access Recommendations for a Public Health Approach 2010 Revision. WHO (2010) Tremendous progress has been made over the past few years in diagnosing and treating infants and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, much remains to be done to effectively scale-up and sustain prevention efforts and treatment services for all in need. The most efficient and cost-effective way to tackle paediatric HIV globally is to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). In 2008, an estimated 45% of pregnant women living with HIV received antiretrovirals (ARVs) to prevent transmission of HIV to their children. However, every day, there are nearly 1 200 new infections in children less than 15 years of age, more than 90% of them occurring in the developing world and most being the result of transmission from mother to child.

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Children and AIDS: Fifth Stocktaking Report. UNICEF (2010)

Children and AIDS: Fifth Stocktaking Report. UNICEF (2010)

For nearly three decades, HIV and AIDS have been devastating individuals and families with the tragedy of untimely death and medical, financial and social burdens. Although children’s concerns have always been present within the great spectrum of need associated with HIV, they have to some extent been overshadowed by the very scale of the epidemic in the adult population.



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Countdown to 2015 Decade Report (2000–2010): Taking Stock of Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival. WHO and UNICEF (2010)

The State of the World’s Children 2004. UNICEF (2004) The Countdown report for 2010 contains good news—many countries are making progress, reducing mortality and increasing coverage of effective health interventions at an accelerating pace.

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Guidelines on HIV and Infant Feeding: Principles and Recommendations for Infant Feeding in the Context of HIV and A Summary of Evidence. WHO, UNAIDS, UNFPA, et al (2010)

Guidelines on HIV and Infant Feeding: Principles and Recommendations for Infant Feeding in the Context of HIV and A Summary of Evidence. WHO, UNAIDS, UNFPA, et al (2010) Significant programmatic experience and research evidence regarding HIV and infant feeding have accumulated since recommendations on infant feeding in the context of HIV were last revised in 2006. In particular, evidence has been reported that antiret- roviral (ARV) interventions to either the HIV-infected mother or HIV-exposed infant can significantly reduce the risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. This evidence has major implications for how women living with HIV might feed their infants, and how health workers should counsel these mothers. In light of this, the World Health Organization (WHO) commenced a guideline development process, culminat- ing in a Guideline Development Group meeting in Geneva on 22–23 October 2009. The process was carried out as outlined in the WHO handbook for guideline development.

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Kiribati Family Health and Support Study: A Study on Violence against Women and Children. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. (2010)

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The study sought to quantify the prevalence of violence against women and children and identify the most common causes of violence. This information is intended to form the basis for interventions that would in the long term minimise and, it is hoped, ultimately eliminate the drivers of violence against women and children. Prior to conducting the study it had been an accepted fact that violence against women and children occurs in Kiribati, just as it does in many other countries of the region. What was difficult to know was the magnitude of the problem. The Kiribati Family Health and Support Study has for the first time in the history of the country provided a picture of just how prevalent and serious this problem is. The finding in the study that 68% of women (2 in 3) between the ages of 15 and 49 years who have ever entered into relationships have reported experiencing physical or sexual violence, or both, by an intimate partner, is a very serious cause for concern.

 

Keywords: HIV, violence, child, women, abuse, partners

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Access to Essential Needs and Services for Children – Orphans and Poverty Status: A study on Cambodia, Thailand and Viet Nam. UNICEF (2009)

Access to Essential Needs and Services for Children – Orphans and Poverty Status: A study on Cambodia, Thailand and Viet Nam. UNICEF (2009) This study used household survey data from Cambodia, Thailand and Viet Nam to examine the situation of orphans relative to children in poverty regarding access to essential needs and services, focusing on basic material needs and education outcomes. This study made use of summary statistics and multivariate regression analysis to determine whether poverty accounts for the education gap between orphans and non-orphans, or whether other factors also contribute to the lower education outcomes of orphans. A similar analysis was done on children’s possession of basic materials – namely a blanket, a pair of shoes and two sets of clothes - which exemplify the capacity of families to protect and care for children.

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