Paediatric HIV Surveillance among Infants and Children Less Than 18 Years of Age. UNAIDS and WHO. (2013)

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This guideline provides approaches to measure the burden of paediatric HIV according to country-specific HIV epidemic contexts. It does not attempt to be comprehensive enough to cover all the issues related to paediatric HIV surveillance. Rather, it serves as a general reference. As “how-to” guides for surveillance data analysis and data use/dissemination are already available, such components will not be addressed in this guide. The guide cites additional materials and resources for further information on paediatric HIV surveillance and includes country examples. 

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The State of the World's Children 2014 in Numbers - Every Child Counts. UNICEF. (2013)

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Much has changed in the decades since the first indicators of child well-being were presented. But the basic idea has not: Credible data about children’s situations are critical to the improvement of their lives – and indispensable to realizing the rights of every child.

Data continue to support advocacy and action on behalf of the world’s 2.2 billion children, providing governments with facts on which to base decisions and actions to improve children’s lives. And new ways of collecting and using data will help target investments and interventions to reach the most vulnerable children.

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Towards an AIDS-Free Generation – Children and AIDS: Sixth Stocktaking Report, 2013. UNICEF. (2013)

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This Sixth Stocktaking Report focuses on the response to HIV and AIDS among children in low- and middle-income countries.1 It is structured around the first and second decades of a child’s life, and has the following objectives:

• to review the HIV burden among children and adolescents and the progress being made in addressing it
• to identify key strategies to accelerate access to HIV prevention, treatment, protection, care and support for children and adolescents
• to summarize opportunities arising from recent scientific advances, new technology and emerging practice innovations
• to mobilize national and international efforts to keep children HIV-free and ensure that those living with HIV remain AIDS-free.

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Child Marriage in Southern Asia. ICRW, UNFPA, AusAID, Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development. (2012)

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Child marriage is not only a violation of a girl’s rights; it also seriously compromises efforts to reduce gender-based violence, advance education, overcome poverty and improve health indicators for girls and women. In these just released policy and advocacy briefs, the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and its partners highlight the life-threatening situations girls in nine Southern Asian countries face on account of child marriage and recommend ways in which policymakers can prevent the practice.

The nine countries included in the briefs are: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.


Keywords: girls, adolescents, advocacy, policy, laws

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Marrying Too Young - End Child Marriage. UNFPA. (2012)

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Child marriage is a human rights abuse. It constitutes a grave threat to young girls’ lives, health and future prospects. Marriage for girls can lead to complications related to pregnancy and childbirth, and in developing countries these are the main causes of death among 15–19 year-old girls. Girls who are married are also exposed to sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. For a girl, marriage can mean the end of her education, can set aside her chances of a vocation or career, and can steal from her foundational life choices.

 

Keywords: human rights, laws, girls, health services, education

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The State of the World’s Children 2011: Adolescence an Age of Opportunity. UNICEF (2011)

The State of the World’s Children 2011: Adolescence an Age of Opportunity. UNICEF (2011) Adolescence is an age of opportunity for children, and a pivotal time for us to build on their development in the first decade of life, to help them navigate risks and vulnerabilities, and to set them on the path to fulfilling their potential.

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Towards Eliminating New HIV Infections in Children and Congenital Syphilis in Asia-Pacific: The 8th Meeting of the Asia-Pacific UN Task Force for the Prevention of Parents-to-Child Transmission of HIV. UNICEF (2011)

Towards eliminating new HIV infections in children and congenital syphilis in Asia-Pacific: The 8th Meeting of the Asia-Pacific UN Task Force for the Prevention of Parents-to-Child Transmission of HIV. UNICEF (2011)

This document is also known as the 2011 Lao PPTCT Task Force Meeting report.

Prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) coverage in the region has increased steadily, albeit slowly, from 9 per cent in 2004 to 32 per cent in 2009, with Thailand surpassing 90 per cent. For other countries, coverage ranges from 3 per cent in Nepal to 55 per cent in Myanmar. Region-wide, the impact of PMTCT services preventing children from acquiring HIV are not yet clearly determined (8th Asia-Pacific UN PPTCT Task Force Meeting Concept Note).


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Vulnerability of Bangladeshi street-children to HIV/AIDS: A Situation Analysis. Uddin J, Sarma H, Nahar Q, et al. (2011)

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The overall objective of the research was to analyze the vulnerability of street-children to HIV/AIDS in Dhaka city. The specific aims were to:

a. Determine the range of experiences and behaviours of street-children that put them at risk of HIV/AIDS and

b. Compare the vulnerability of different groups of street-children [living in the street without family (abandoned), living in the street with family, and working in the street and returning to the family at night—both males and females].

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Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Infants and Children: Towards Universal Access Recommendations for a Public Health Approach 2010 Revision. WHO (2010)

Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Infants and Children: Towards Universal Access Recommendations for a Public Health Approach 2010 Revision. WHO (2010) Tremendous progress has been made over the past few years in diagnosing and treating infants and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, much remains to be done to effectively scale-up and sustain prevention efforts and treatment services for all in need. The most efficient and cost-effective way to tackle paediatric HIV globally is to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). In 2008, an estimated 45% of pregnant women living with HIV received antiretrovirals (ARVs) to prevent transmission of HIV to their children. However, every day, there are nearly 1 200 new infections in children less than 15 years of age, more than 90% of them occurring in the developing world and most being the result of transmission from mother to child.

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Children and AIDS: Fifth Stocktaking Report. UNICEF (2010)

Children and AIDS: Fifth Stocktaking Report. UNICEF (2010)

For nearly three decades, HIV and AIDS have been devastating individuals and families with the tragedy of untimely death and medical, financial and social burdens. Although children’s concerns have always been present within the great spectrum of need associated with HIV, they have to some extent been overshadowed by the very scale of the epidemic in the adult population.



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